Biblical Archaeology Solomon

But sanctify the Lord God in your hearts: and be ready always to give an answer to every man that asketh you a reason of the hope that is in you with meekness and fear. (1 Peter 3:15)

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Passages concerning Solomon

David Rohl deals extensively with Solomon.

Marriage to Pharaoh's daughter | Massive building projects | The Millo | Table of Contents

Marriage to Pharaoh's daughter — builds her a palace in Jerusalem

Solomon married an Egyptian princess. He built her a palace on a small hill outside the city. This palace has been located in an archaeological excavation. It is very unusual that an Egyptian Pharaoh would allow a princess to marry a foreigner because the Pharaohs had such a strong sense of dynastic purity. But during the time of Solomon the reigning Pharaoh wouldn't have this objection.

From the Bible From Archaeology

Page numbers from "Pharaohs and Kings" by David Rohl
Solomon brought Pharaoh's daughter up from the City of David to the palace he had built for her, for he said, "My wife must not live in the palace of David king of Israel, because the places the ark of the LORD has entered are holy." (2 Chr 8:11) This passage records the building of a residence by Solomon for his principal queen - the daughter of an Egyptian Pharaoh. (pg 181)

An Egyptian-style building once stood to the north of the Damascus Gate on a hill overlooking Jerusalem. It really was up from the city. (pg 182-183)

There was a statuette of a seated female figure in typical Egyptian style. (pg 182)

This structure was probably a small temple or tomb within the residence of a native Egyptian of high rank. (pg 183)

This is the only structure containing Egyptian archaeological elements in stone ever found in Jerusalem. The Bible only mentions one building constructed for a native Egyptian. This building was located in the right place and was in the right time period. (pg 183)
Solomon brought Pharaoh's daughter up from the City of David to the palace he had built for her. . . . (2 Chr 8:11) Pharaoh Haremheb was reigning during the early years of King Solomon. (pg 181)

Previous to the time of Haremheb the Pharaohs would not have suffered the indignity of allowing an Egyptian princess to be married off to a foreign ruler. For example, Amenhotep II had once been asked by the king of Mitanni to supply one of his daughters to seal an alliance but he haughtily refused. (pg 184-185)

However, if ever there were a time in Egyptian history when a Pharaoh's daughter might be offered to a foreign ruler it was during Haremheb's reign. Four reasons: (pg 185)

(1) Haremheb was not directly descended from the royal bloodline and was not so overly burdened with the sense of dynastic purity. (pg 184)

(2) Haremheb made his career in the military and was Commander-in-Chief of the Egyptian army. He was a practical man. (pg 184-185)

(3) Egypt was no longer militarily strong enough to recover the Levant by a force of arms. It would be expedient to tie powerful Levantine city-state rulers to the Egyptian throne through marriage alliance perhaps for a mutually-beneficial trading partnership. (pg 185)

(4) The lady 'Sharelli' of the Pharaoh's court (almost certainly a princess) was married to one of the more powerful city-state rulers of Western Asia at around the same time. (pg 185)

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Massive building projects

From the Bible From Archaeology

Page numbers from "Pharaohs and Kings" by David Rohl
Here is the account of the forced labor King Solomon conscripted to build the Lord's temple, his own palace, the supporting terraces, the wall of Jerusalem, and Hazor, Megiddo and Gezer. (1 Ki 9:15) From the archaeological evidence, Megiddo in the Jezreel valley reached its cultural zenith during the time from David to Ahab. (pg 177)

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The Millo

The Millo has been located in archaeological excavations.

From the Bible From Archaeology

Page numbers from "Pharaohs and Kings" by David Rohl
. . . King Solomon. . .  [built] the supporting terraces [Millo]. (1 Ki 9:15)

After Pharaoh's daughter had come up from the City of David to the palace Solomon had built for her, he constructed the supporting terraces [Millo]. (1 Ki 9:24)
This was a massive terrace system constructed with stone retainer walls back-filled with rubble. It increased the building area within the old City of David along its precipitous eastern slope affording an increase in population within the new Israelite capital city. It added at least 6,000 square meters. (pg 180)

It was located in the archaeological dig at the correct time period. (pg 181)

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 Revised: Nov 11, 2000