(Matthew 2:1) Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judaea in the days of Herod the king, behold, there came wise men [Magi] from the east to Jerusalem,
Magi: probably astrologers (who are also astronomers) and priests from Persia. It is striking that heathens with clearly false views about the heavens would figure prominently in the story of Jesus. Perhaps the point is that if such as these could recognize who Jesus was, surely the Jews should have.
We don't know whether the Magi gave up their un-Christian practices and beliefs as a result of this encounter. This give credence to the idea that the key to redemption is in recognizing Jesus as Messiah and worshipping him, not in adhering to correct church doctrine. Certainly there are many throughout church history with incorrect doctrine, in fact, you could make the case that there is no one (except for me) who has correct doctrine in every topic. As long as the basic facts of Jesus as Messiah are recognized, God allows for our errors in non-essentials.
From the east: The Magi likely lived in Persia perhaps 400 or 500 miles away (the reverse route of Abraham, from Jerusalem; first north, then east, then southeast).
The Magi may have been priests of the monotheistic Zoroastrian religion. The Magi has influence in the court much as Daniel did; perhaps Daniel acted as an early Magi. This religion has the concept of a savior. Perhaps the Magi thought that Jesus was this savior.
(Matthew 2:2) Saying, Where is he that is born King of the Jews? for we have seen his star in the east, and are come to worship him.
King of the Jews: The Jews believe that the Messiah will be a king. In fact, one of the reasons they reject Jesus as being the Messiah is because he was not a king! A few Old Testament passages indicating that the Messiah would be king:
(Psalm 72:1,10) A Psalm for Solomon. Give the king thy judgments, O God, and thy righteousness unto the king's son. The kings of Tarshish and of the isles shall bring presents: the kings of Sheba and Seba shall offer gifts.
(Zechariah 9:9) Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion; shout, O daughter of Jerusalem: behold, thy King cometh unto thee: he is just, and having salvation; lowly, and riding upon an ass, and upon a colt the foal of an ass.
(Dan 7:13,14) I saw in the night visions, and, behold, one like the Son of man came with the clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of days, and they brought him near before him. And there was given him dominion, and glory, and a kingdom, that all people, nations, and languages, should serve him: his dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom that which shall not be destroyed.
Star in the east: Jerusalem was to the west but the star was in the east. This implies that this star was an astronomical event, not a supernatural star guiding their journey. They went to Jerusalem because they knew from the Old Testament that is where the Messiah would be, not because the star pointed the way.
Worship: The king of the Jews was to be worshipped and it was worth spending perhaps 6 months of your life to do so. Notice that the Magi made a pilgrimage in their worship of Jesus.
(Matthew 2:3) When Herod the king had heard these things, he was troubled, and all Jerusalem with him.
Herod was jealous of Jesus, the king. This jealousy leads to the slaughter of the innocents children 2 years old and under.
(Matthew 2:4) And when he had gathered all the chief priests and scribes of the people together, he demanded of them where Christ should be born.
Herod assumes that the Jewish leaders would know something about the Messiah, in particular, where he was to be born. This fact was important to Herod because he planned to execute him. It is ironic that 30 years later it was the Jewish leaders who executed Jesus even though Pilate wanted to release him.
(Matthew 2:5) And they said unto him, In Bethlehem of Judaea: for thus it is written by the prophet,
The Jewish leaders know that the Messiah was to be from Bethlehem. But later, they don't know that Jesus was born there (and they don't even bother to ask — they don't want to know the truth.)
(John 7:41,42,52) Others said, This is the Christ. But some said, Shall Christ come out of Galilee? Hath not the scripture said, That Christ cometh of the seed of David, and out of the town of Bethlehem, where David was? They answered and said unto him, Art thou also of Galilee? Search, and look: for out of Galilee ariseth no prophet.
(Matthew 2:6) And thou Bethlehem, in the land of Juda, art not the least among the princes of Juda: for out of thee shall come a Governor, that shall rule my people Israel.
This is a quote from Micah:
(Micah 5:2) But thou, Bethlehem Ephratah, though thou be little among the thousands of Judah, yet out of thee shall he come forth unto me that is to be ruler in Israel; whose goings forth have been from of old, from everlasting.
(Matthew 2:7) Then Herod, when he had privily called the wise men, inquired of them diligently what time the star appeared.
It seems odd that this passage would inform us that Herod asked when the star appeared but not reveal to us the answer. The Magi seem to be rather naive in dealing with Herod; after leading Herod to the young child Jesus they head back to Persia.
(Matthew 2:8) And he sent them to Bethlehem, and said, Go and search diligently for the young child; and when ye have found him, bring me word again, that I may come and worship him also.
Herod is a liar. He has no intention of worshipping Jesus.
(Matthew 2:9) When they had heard the king, they departed; and, lo, the star, which they saw in the east, went before them, till it came and stood over where the young child was.
(Matthew 2:10) When they saw the star, they rejoiced with exceeding great joy.
The star which they saw in the east now guided them to the precise location of Jesus in Bethelem. This second star could not be merely an astronomical conjunction of planets; it was probably an apparition which guided the way. This apparition probably looked like the astronomical conjunction of planets that had led them to travel to Jerusalem, that is why verse 9 refers to it as "the star which they saw in the east."
The star guided them to the very house in which Jesus was.
They rejoiced when the saw the star. After a long 3 month journey they were probably quite relieved to find that their quest was not in vain. It seems the heavens were confirming that the prophecies concerning the birth of the Messiah that led them to Jerusalem were true.
(Matthew 2:11) And when they were come into the house, they saw the young child with Mary his mother, and fell down, and worshipped him: and when they had opened their treasures, they presented unto him gifts; gold, and frankincense, and myrrh.
It is a Catholic tradition to worship the child Jesus but Protestants reject this idea. They seem to think that Jesus wasn't deity until he became an adult.
Part of their worship involved giving material gifts of great worth. These likely paid for the care of Jesus for many years, especially after Joseph died.
Jesus is no longer in the manger. Likely he has already been presented by Mary in the temple. He is perhaps as old as 2 years old since Herod killed all the children up to that age based on his diligent inquiry into the time the Magi first saw the star.
(Matthew 2:16) Then Herod, when he saw that he was mocked of the wise men, was exceeding wroth, and sent forth, and slew all the children that were in Bethlehem, and in all the coasts thereof, from two years old and under, according to the time which he had diligently inquired of the wise men.
(Matthew 2:12) And being warned of God in a dream that they should not return to Herod, they departed into their own country another way.
This is a strange trip of the Magi. They unwittingly guide Herod to Jesus so he can kill him. They are rather dull-witted. They made no effort to try to save Jesus from the danger they placed him in; they merely went back to Persia self-satisfied that they had worshipped him, oblivious to the fact that he would have to be uprooted and taken to Egypt for years for safety. With friends like these who needs enemies.
After the Babylonian exile the Jews continued to live in Persia. The Magi were likely familiar with Old Testament prophecies regarding the time of the coming of the Messiah. They made a months-long journey to worship this Messiah as a young child. It seems odd that these Persian astrologers could recognize the coming of the Messiah but that the Jewish leaders missed it. They weren't paying attention.
Daniel's prophecy gives the date of the coming of the Messiah:
(Daniel 9:24) Seventy weeks are determined upon thy people and upon thy holy city, to finish the transgression, and to make an end of sins, and to make reconciliation for iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousness, and to seal up the vision and prophecy, and to anoint the most Holy.
(Daniel 9:25) Know therefore and understand, that from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the Messiah the Prince shall be seven weeks, and threescore and two weeks.