Genesis is the book of generations...

My views...

I accept that Moses wrote the book of Genesis and the other books of the Torah. He probably referred to various other writings. Probably later copyists modified the text thinking to improve it. I accept the Bible as the inspired, inerrant, and infallible word of God; this includes both Old and New Testaments. But I should note that not all the stories in the Bible are of things God would approve of.

(Genesis 1:1) In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.

This is not the beginning of God, nor of the angels. It refers to the beginning of the universe and the creatures that live on the earth.

The word "heaven" or "heavens" has several meanings...

  1. The universe where the stars are.
  2. The sky.
  3. Various spiritual realms.

Some various spiritual realms (all referred to by the word heaven)...

  1. The highest heaven where only God resides.
  2. The place where the angels come to present themselves to the Lord (mentioned in the book of Job).
  3. Purgatory
  4. The place where Saints go when they die.
  5. The spiritual realm around the earth where the wicked spirits live and do spiritual warfare with humans and angels.
  6. Other spiritual realms of wicked spirits such as the abyss,the pit, the place where Satan was chained for 1,000 years.

(Genesis 1:2) And the earth was without form [a waste], and void [empty]; and darkness was upon the face [surface] of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon [hovered over] the face of the waters.

At first the earth was without form; it was a mere swirling mass of gases, dust, and elements produced inside stars and supernovae and ejected into the universe during energetic explosions. These clumped together via gravity and static electricity and finally became a semi-solid sphere, then cooled becoming solid in the center.

The earth is without form yet there is a surface of the deep, a face of the waters. This implies two things...

  1. The earth was covered with water and there was no dry land.
  2. There was a cloud and fog cover over the entire earthsimilar to Venus.

According to some scientific theories of geologic history, the earth was once in this exact condition maybe three and a half billion years ago, a billion years after first forming.

Notice the presence of the Holy Spirit at the earth's surface. This indicates that everything concerning life and salvation would occur in that thin coating of the earth's surface. This is true; there is no life deep within the earth nor above the atmosphere.

At this point the earth was empty of life.

Day 1

(Genesis 1:3) And God said, Let there be light: and there was light.

At first, dust and clouds in the atmosphere prevented the sun's light from reaching the earth's surface.Eventually this thinned and the light could then reach the surface of the ocean waters through the clouds and fog. There was no direct sunlight since this thick layer of cloud and fog still covered the entire earth, but light did get through.

(Genesis 1:4) And God saw the light, that it was good: and God divided the light from the darkness.

Yes, the light from the sun is good. It provides the energy for all life on earth.

God looks down upon the universe he created and determines whether it is good or not.

(Genesis 1:5) And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And the evening and the morning were the first day.

If there were anyone on the surface of the earth to notice (the Holy Spirit hovering over the surface of the water notices,) looking up through the thick fog they would see it get dark each night and light each day just as it does today even when it is cloudy and foggy. The light of the sun penetrates even thick fog.

Notice that the origin of language is God; he gives names to things and phenomena. This implies there is language in the spiritual realmwith words, grammar, and syntax.

Young-earth creationists claim that the literal reading of the phrase "first day" implies a 24-hour day but this is not a literal reading at all!

Day 2

(Genesis 1:6) And God said, Let there be a firmament [sky] in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.

After a long while, the cloud layer thinned and finally there were patches of clear sky. Once the fog lifted you could clearly distinguish the layer of liquid water (the oceans) from the visible condensed water vapor (the clouds) in the sky.

The vapor canopy theory proposed by some young-earth creationists is absurd. It attempts to explain the source of the water of Noah's flood by impossibly placing it poised high in the sky. Also, in verse 14we see that the sun, moon, and stars are also in the firmament which contradicts their whole theory.

(Genesis 1:7) And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament: and it was so.

The fog lifted from the surface of the earth becoming clouds.

(Genesis 1:8) And God called the firmament Heaven [heavens]. And the evening and the morning were the second day.

Young-earth creationists claim that the literal reading of the phrase "second day" implies a 24-hour day but this is not a literal reading at all!

The text neglects to mention that the activities on the second day of creation are good. I doubt if there is any significance to this non-mention.

Day 3

(Genesis 1:9) And God said, Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear: and it was so.

Finally under the influence of plate tectonics, the continents rose up out of the water.

(Genesis 1:10) And God called the dry land Earth; and the gathering together of the waters called he Seas: and God saw that it was good.

(Genesis 1:11) And God said, Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind, whose seed is in itself, upon the earth: and it was so.

The Bible ignores the first life forms: bacteria and other single-celled organisms, and small sea creatures not normally noticed by humans. The Bible is clearly written from a human-centric viewpoint, only addressing topics of interest to humans at the time the books were written. The Bible is not a scientific treatise.

(Genesis 1:12) And the earth brought forth grass, and herb yielding seed after his kind, and the tree yielding fruit, whose seed was in itself, after his kind: and God saw that it was good.

(Genesis 1:13) And the evening and the morning were the third day.

Young-earth creationists claim that the literal reading of the phrase "third day" implies a 24-hour day but this is not a literal reading at all!

Day 4

This section is exceptionally wordy and repetitive.

(Genesis 1:14) And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years:

The lights referred to are the sun, moon, and stars. In verse 6we see that the firmament is below the clouds but here we see it is in space. Perhaps the word firmament merely refers to the space between things.

Some think astrologyis referred to here by the word "signs". Certainly the positions of stars were noticed by early humans but the Old Testament condemns astrology.

The era of continual cloud cover ends and the sun, moon, and stars become visible, just like today.

(Genesis 1:15) And let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth: and it was so.

(Genesis 1:16) And God made two great lights; the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night: he made the stars also.

The previous is restated. The light from the sun overwhelms all other light in the day, and the light from the full moon overwhelms the light from the stars at night.

This verse highlights a question of interpreting the Bible: does the word "rule" really mean "overwhelm"? The question is, what does any particular word really mean? In my view we must accept the meanings of words to be those of the writer, including flowery and idiomatic uses. But we must interpret the Bible strictly literallyand reject the many allegoricaland typologicalsystems in common use among those claiming to interpret the Bible literally.

(Genesis 1:17) And God set them in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth,

The light from the moon at night would be very important to early man.

(Genesis 1:18) And to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness: and God saw that it was good.

(Genesis 1:19) And the evening and the morning were the fourth day.

Young-earth creationists claim that the literal reading of the phrase "fourth day" implies a 24-hour day but this is not a literal reading at all!

Day 5

(Genesis 1:20) And God said, Let the waters bring forth abundantly the moving creature that hath life, and fowl that may fly above the earth in the open firmament of heaven.

Sea creatures and birds.

(Genesis 1:21) And God created great whales, and every living creature that moveth, which the waters brought forth abundantly, after their kind, and every winged fowl after his kind: and God saw that it was good.

(Genesis 1:22) And God blessed them, saying, Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let fowl multiply in the earth.

Living creatures are to be fruitful and multiply until they fill the space allotted for them. Once they fill it they must stop multiplying and settle in to a new mode of sustainability.

Humans have filled the earth and must stop being fruitful and multiplying. We must live in a sustainable manner.

(Genesis 1:23) And the evening and the morning were the fifth day.

Young-earth creationists claim that the literal reading of the phrase "fifth day" implies a 24-hour day but this is not a literal reading at all!

Day 6

(Genesis 1:24) And God said, Let the earth bring forth the living creature after his kind, cattle, and creeping thing, and beast of the earth after his kind: and it was so.

Young earth creationists make a lot of the word "kind" since they must support the notion that only microevolution is possible; that new species do not arise via genetic mutations except via microevolution within the category of "kinds".

(Genesis 1:25) And God made the beast of the earth after his kind, and cattle after their kind, and every thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind: and God saw that it was good.

(Genesis 1:26) And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.

Humans were created in the image of God. Because of this, Jesus was able to take on human nature in the incarnation since human nature was already in God's image. In doing so, Jesus deified human natureand made it part of the divine nature. We will experience this to the full in the new heavens and new earth.Having human nature means we have the ability to discern right from wrong; we are moralcreatures accountable for our actions.

Notice that God is plural; God is a Trinity of persons.

We were created to have dominion over the animals and the earth. This means we are to live on the earth in a sustainablemanner in which we don't over-exploit resources. This means we are not to torture animals in the laboratory and in farms and dairies.

The word "man" is the same Hebrew word as "Adam" but here it clearly refers to humans.

The first modern humans of 200,000 years ago were created in God's image.Adam was not the first modern human as he only appeared about 10,000 B.C. after agriculture and the domestication of animals had appeared.

Perhaps what was new about Adam was his longevity, that he would live to be nearly 1,000 years old.

(Genesis 1:27) So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them.

God created humans in his image. He created humans as procreative creatures. Thus, marriage and childrearing is a central part of humanity. Throughout much of world history and in some societies even today, women have inferior status and are not respected as equals. This violates God's intention in creating us.

The word "man" is the same Hebrew word as "Adam" but here it clearly refers to humans.

This does not refer to the creation of Adam and Eve but, rather, to the first humans about 200,000 years ago via "normal" evolutionary processes. God directed a stray particle of radiation just so to one of the reproductive cells (gamete) of a pre-human homonid and this modified gamete just happened to be the one that joined with the other gamete and began cell division as a zygote. The same thing occurred several times until finally there was a stable population of modern humans.

(Genesis 1:28) And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth.

We are to replenish the earth, not overexploit it; we must live in a sustainablemanner. Now that we have started overusing resources and overpolluting, we must reverse our trend to overpopulate.

Modern humans are the species that now dominate the world, not one of the pre-human homonids; these are now extinct.

(Genesis 1:29) And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat [food].

If Lucifer were not involved in the activities of this world, humans would have never eaten meat; neither will we in the new heavens and new earth.Adam and Eve were farmers and ranchers in the garden of Eden;after the fall, God taught them to also kill animals as sacrifice. These sacrificed animals were used for clothing and food— why let the meat go to waste? Even the Levites ate the sacrificed animals.

Vegetarians often use this verse to prove God wants us to be vegetarian, but Abel's regular animal sacrificespleasing to God refutes this. They sacrificed and butchered and, presumably, ate animals obtained by hunting.

This verse refers to the elements of agriculture which God knew provided the basis of civilization. Civilization is not possible without a dependable food source so that people can settle into cities.

(Genesis 1:30) And to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is life, I have given every green herb for meat [food]: and it was so.

The animals had been eating each other for food since they were created, but this was not God's original plan for them, it was a corruption engineered by Satan.In the new heavens and new earththey will no longer eat each other; neither will humans eat meat or kill.

This verse refers mainly to the animals that humans domesticated; these are vegetarians. Cattle, sheep, turkeys, etc. are all vegetarian. Well okay, birds eat worms. But their food is not meat in the sense referred to here; they don't eat mammals nor even reptiles.

(Genesis 1:31) And God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold, it was very good. And the evening and the morning were the sixth day.

Young-earth creationists claim that the literal reading of the phrase "sixth day" implies a 24-hour day but this is not a literal reading at all!

Everything God created from days 1 to 6 is good; not just good but very good. It's hard to understand how people can claim humans are not good; certainly original sin tainted us all but it did not completely negate the goodness God observed.

(Genesis 2:1) Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the host of them.

At the time the first humans appeared, most of this work of creating the earth and the species was finished. All that work lasted about 4.6 billion years; since the first humans it has been maybe 200,000 years,only 0.004 percent of the time since the earth took shape.

Day 7

(Genesis 2:2) And on the seventh day God ended his work which he had made; and he rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had made.

Young-earth creationists who claim that the literal reading of the phrase "x-th day" refers to a 24-hour day suddenly change their interpretation procedure and here interpret the phrase "seventh day" as figurative; not a 24-hour day at all but an age still continuing even today.

(Genesis 2:3) And God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it: because that in it he had rested from all his work which God created and made.

The final stage of God's plan of redemption was complete: the creation of humans in the image of God, capable of choosing him or rejecting him, capable of living in holiness or of sinning, all via free-will choices.

(Genesis 2:4) These are the generations of the heavens and of the earth when they were created, in the day that the LORD God made the earth and the heavens,

Twice the phrase "these are the generations" is a postscript or coda referring to the preceeding events.

(Genesis 2:5) NKJV: before any plant of the field was in the earth and before any herb of the field had grown. For the Lord God had not caused it to rain on the earth, and there was no man to till the ground.

This verse refers to the time before there were plants and before there was rain and before there were humans (or any other living things.)

The word "man" is the same Hebrew word as "Adam".

(Genesis 2:6) But there went up a mist from the earth, and watered the whole face of the ground.

At this time there was mist but not rain. This refers to the time when the earth was covered in a thick fog.

Yes, it can rain when it's foggy but this verse is not referring to that. It contrasts the time the earth was covered in a thick fog with the time of Adam and Eve when there was sunshine and rain. During the foggy era the mist from the fog caused the ground to be wet; by the time of Adam and Eve the earth became wet mainly because of rain.

We should wonder why the writer found this detail to be so fascinating as to spend two verses on it. Perhaps it's because Adam and Eve were farmers in the garden of Eden and farmers are very concerned about rain.

After some analysis I now understand this verse to be a cornerstone in understanding the chronology of human history.The flow of ideas...

  1. The first anatomically modern humans (AMH) or Homo Sapiens Sapiens appeared in Ethopia 200,000 years ago. Migration occurred based on air temperature, ice sheets, and land bridges, with occasional short trips across water in boats.
  2. Animal domestication began about 10,000 years ago, and this occurred in China at the same time as the near east.
  3. Agriculture began in the near east about 10,000 or 12,000 years ago.
  4. The accounts of Adam & Eveand Seth & Cainclearly refer to both farming and ranching.
  5. Noah's flood was the flooding of the Caspian Sea or Black Sea sometime after 10,000 years ago.
  6. The garden of Eden was near Tabriz, Iran.
  7. Based on all the above I conclude that Adam & Evewere not the first anatomically modern humans (AMH) or Homo Sapiens Sapiens and that, therefore, there are humans who are not descended from Adam and Eve.
  8. Presumably the rise of agriculture triggered an event in God's plan of redemption in which he implanted his "image" with humans, although the first modern humans long before Adam had this image of God also.God provided the offer of redemption first to Adam, then to Eve, then to all humans including those who had already died even hundreds of thousands of years before.


(Genesis 2:7) And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.

Man is a living soul with a body.Our bodies are formed out of the same stuff as the dust of the ground; the various elements of the universe. What gives us life is the breath of life which God breathes into us.

Note that this breath of life is in some way connected with breathing; in fact, the Holy Spirit is often referred to as breath. The eastern philosophy of yoga considers the life-force to reside within the breath and they employ breathing practices to attune their minds to God's presence. The Bible mentions none of this so it is either: (1) just plain wrong, or (2) dangerous (because wicked spirits can harm us), or (3) useless to living a life pleasing to God.

Christians often claim that the Holy Spirit enters a person upon their receiving Christ as savior, but note here that the Spirit of God enters them upon them becoming a living soul. In other words, without the indwelling of the power of the Holy Spirit, all life would cease to live.

Notice that God does not breathe the breath of life into the animals, or at least it is not mentioned. This is not mentioned of the creation of Eve either but, clearly, Eve had the same characteristics as Adam. Therefore, we should not make too much of this non-mention.

The word "man" is the same Hebrew word as "Adam". Perhaps it means humans rather than the person named "Adam". At conception each person acquires a physical body and a soul having the breath of life from God.

(Genesis 2:8) And the LORD God planted a garden eastward in Eden; and there he put the man whom he had formed.

Eden and the garden are two distinct things. Eden is a region and the garden is located within it.

The garden of Eden was near Tabriz, Iran in what is now Osku.

Notice that the garden is east of somewhere. Tabriz is indeed east of Israel so it was east of Moses when he wrote these words.

The word "man" is the same Hebrew word as "Adam".

The wording of this verse implies either (1) that God created Adam in one location but moved him to the garden of Eden, or (2) that humans migrated to the location of Eden. The Hebrew does not say "the man" but merely "man".

Adam is not the ancester of all modern humans; agriculture developed at around the same time in other parts of the world. Adam was merely the father of God's plan of redemption. Ultimately the Messiah would be Adam's descendant. But neither Adam nor Eve were genetically superior in any way; they were just average modern humans as we all are today and as the modern humans before them were for 190,000 years until Adam appeared about 10,000 B.C.

(Genesis 2:9) And out of the ground made the LORD God to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food; the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of knowledge of good and evil.

The significance of the fact that humans forever have the knowledge of good and evil can be understood by referring to conditions in the new heavens and new earth,this occurring after evil is cast into the lake of fire.

In this current universe there is evil and wickedness as the spiritual powers of darkness have invaded the spiritual realm our souls reside in. Thus, we are aware of evil. Redemption is God's plan for removing evil, for judging it. After that we will be safe. I think if Adam and Eve had rejected evil that God would have redeemed the universe right then. But they choose to be aware of both good and evil, to live with both, to experience pain and suffering, sin and evil, and death.

In the new heavens and new earth will be the new Jerusalemhaving gates that are always open, meaning there will be no enemies. As people come into the city they will notice the open gates; will be aware that enemies have been vanquished; will glorify God that he has provided for their safety and protection.

(Genesis 2:10) And a river went out of Eden to water the garden; and from thence it was parted, and became into four heads.

The four rivers can be explained if Eden is outside Tabriz, Iran as David Rohlsuggests.

The phrase "from there it was parted" is only one word in the Hebrew. Also, the phrase "became into four heads" is also only one word in the Hebrew. Perhaps the true meaning is that this river that waters the garden is separate from the four headwaters mentioned but that they are all in close proximity to one another such that a large storm system rains water into all five rivers. The actual sentence might read: "And a river went out of Eden to water the garden; separated four heads."

In studying about the four rivers I encountered many articles in which the writer used the meaning of the names of the rivers as a source of sermon material, usually via allegory(an example: "This river may be an emblem of the everlasting love of God, that pure river of water of life.") Certainly many names in the Bible have a meaning based on the related events but using the names of these rivers this way seems unnatural; you may as well use the dictionary as the source of your sermons!

(Genesis 2:11) The name of the first is Pison: that is it which compasseth the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold;

(Genesis 2:12) And the gold of that land is good: there is bdellium and the onyx stone.

A reference to a person named Havilah.

The Pison River (named Ghezel Ozan River and other variations today) runs northwest from near Mt. Sahand, a mountain 25 miles south of Tabriz, Iran, and into the Caspian Sea. There are gold mines in the area. It flows from Mt. Cham Dagh to Miyanah (Mianeh) to Manjil to Rasht to the Caspian Sea.

(Genesis 2:13) And the name of the second river is Gihon: the same is it that compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia [Cush].

It's hard to reconcile the reference to Ethiopia, the modern-day country in Africa, unless Eden is also in Africa. But the word "Ethopia" in the Bible is the same word as "Cush" which is in the mountains northeast of Tabriz, Iran, just south of the Aras River.

The modern-day River Aras is the Gihon River. It flows from the mountains of Turkey to Lake Arpi in Armenia, then along the border of Armenia and Turkey, then along the border of Azerbaijan and Turkey, then along the border of Azerbaijan and Iran, then along the border of Armenia and Iran, then along the border of Azerbaijan and Iran again to Sabirabad in Azerbaijan, then into the Caspian Sea.

(Genesis 2:14) And the name of the third river is Hiddekel [Tigris]: that is it which goeth toward the east of Assyria. And the fourth river is Euphrates.

The Tigris River starts on the west side of Assyria but travels south and east.

Here is an example of a writer long after Moses adding explanatory information to the text. There was no Assyria in Moses' time.

(Genesis 2:15) And the LORD God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it.

The word "man" is the same Hebrew word as "Adam".

The wording of this verse implies either (1) that God created Adam in one location but moved him to the garden of Eden, or (2) that humans migrated to the location of Eden. The Hebrew does not say "the man" but merely "man".

God's Covenant with Humans

(Genesis 2:16) And the LORD God commanded the man, saying, Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat:

The word "man" is the same Hebrew word as "Adam". The Hebrew does not say "the man" but merely "man".

The first divine law of God. God uses this law to test Adam and Eve, the first humans of redemption history, to determine whether they would remain faithful to God in the face of temptation. Human nature being weak, they failed the test.

I wonder why they never ate of the tree of life? Perhaps God's law scared them so they stayed away from all these special trees — except the one specifically forbidden them which captivated their thinking like an obsession.

I think if they would have eaten from the tree of life redemption history would have ended before it even began; Satan would have been judged and humans would have entered into the new heavens and new earth.

(Genesis 2:17) But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die.

They would die the day they ate. Since they didn't die physically for hundreds of years after eating it, God is referring to spiritual death, separation from God's presence. After dying spiritually they would be in need of redemption.

Adam was very familiar with death; he had seen animals die, had probably eaten them, and had probably seen his fellow humans die.

Why would God use the word "die" to refer to spiritual death if Adam likely interpreted it as meaning physical death? Jesus does this on occasion also, says something he knows is being misunderstood by his hearers.When you think about this carefully it is true of all communication; no one really knows exactly what you are thinking when you speak. Only some of what we say is precisely understood. Perhaps God was content for Adam to know that disobedience of God's Law results in death. The details of whether eternal death for the unredeemed would occur in the far future was beyond what God wished to communicate.

Young earth creationists claim there was no death yet in the world until Adam transgressed.

Perhaps what was new about Adam was his longevity, that he would live to be nearly 1,000 years old. Perhaps he was originally created to never die, to always be under the protection of God as the redeemed will be in the new heavens and new earth.But in disobeying God's command he sealed his fate; one day he would die. Over the generations the lifespan of Adam's children slowly decreased until it became the same as the first modern humans who were created 200,000 years ago in Ethopia.

We moderns assume humans of the past lived only as long as us today but the book of Genesis disagrees. Science should take biblical claims more seriously and look for evidence of long lifespans in some humans. Perhaps long lifespans began only with Adam and his line, that the other modern humans before Adam and those not descended from Adam had short lifespans like us today.

(Genesis 2:18) And the LORD God said, It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him an help meet [suitable helper] for him.

The word "man" is the same Hebrew word as "Adam". The Hebrew does not say "the man" but merely "man".

Adam was single. Why would Adam need a wife if many people today can remain single for their whole lives?

Here's what I think happened: Adam was a member of a proto-agricultural tribe living down in the broad valley near Tabriz, Iran (the region of Eden). After Adam had learned all the farming and ranching skills of his tribe, God appeared to him with a special divine mission, much as the prophets of Old Testament Israel were specially called-out. I assume God appeared in human form as he did to Abraham and others. Adam took his sheep and his farming implements and some seeds and journeyed into the mountain valleys of Mt. Sahand, into the garden. There he worked by himself having regular appearances and interactions with God, and God taught him to live as a farmer and rancher. This knowledge was passed-on to his descendants.

The phrase "suitable helper" means far more than merely a servant but, rather, someone who makes you complete, who fulfills your purpose.

(Genesis 2:19) And out of the ground the LORD God formed every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air; and brought them unto Adam to see what he would call them: and whatsoever Adam called every living creature, that was the name thereof.

The word "man" is the same Hebrew word as "Adam".

The creatures referred to had been around for over 100 or 200 million years but the text reads as if they had just been created (just as young earth creationists claim). But the text does not specify the time interval; whether several days or hundreds of millions of years. It is very common in the Bible to string together events occurring at various time intervals without specifying the events occurring in between.

All creatures including humans were formed out of the ground, from the dust.

Language is an essential ingredient for civilization. God taught Adam a new way to think about the use of language. Language did not originate with Adam; the earliest modern humans of 200,000 years ago used language. Also, people in other parts of the world who were not descendants of Adam used language and developed civilizations but perhaps they were influenced by the knowledge God imparted to Adam; the rise of civilizations in Asia lagged behind those in the near east where Adam lived.

(Genesis 2:20) And Adam gave names to all cattle, and to the fowl of the air, and to every beast of the field; but for Adam there was not found an help meet [suitable helper] for him.

The word "man" is the same Hebrew word as "Adam".

The cattle in question are probably those domesticated by humans and used for food and materials including sheep, goats, and cattle. Animals were first domesticated about the time of Noah's flood, but agriculture began about the time of Adam.

(Genesis 2:21) And the LORD God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept: and he took one of his ribs [part of his side], and closed up the flesh instead thereof;

Apparently God performed some sort of surgery on Adam to create Eve. A few points to consider...

  1. Eve was a descendant of Mitochondrial Eve who lived tens or hundreds of thousands of years earlier. The mitochondrial genomes are passed on from mother to daughter. How could these have been obtained from Adam's side, from Adam's genes?
  2. Men and women have differences in their genes; for example, men have one X chromosome and one Y chromosome whereas women have two copies of the X chromosome.
  3. Was Eve incubated in the womb of another modern female? It would certainly be easier to create a human this way, to use the reproductive apparatus which was specially designed for this job.
  4. It is noteworthy that Jesus had two female ancestors who had some sort of miraculous procreation experience: Eve and Mary.

Some interpret this all very allegoricallyusing the word "side" as a launching point for sermonizing about gender equality. I prefer to interpret the Bible strictly literally.

(Genesis 2:22) And the rib [part of his side], which the LORD God had taken from man, made he a woman, and brought her unto the man.

The word "man" is the same Hebrew word as "Adam". The Hebrew does not say "the man" but merely "man".

(Genesis 2:23) And Adam said, This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh: she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man.

The word "man" is the same Hebrew word as "Adam".

Some people make a lot of the distinction between "flesh and blood" and "flesh and bone," usually in the context of Christ's resurrection body having only flesh and bone.This verse contradicts their views since Adam and Eve both also have flesh and bone.

The Hebrew words for "man" and "woman" are similar, as they also are in English.

Apparently Adam knew the source of Eve's creation.

(Genesis 2:24) Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife: and they shall be one flesh.

The establishment of the institution of marriage. Certainly the modern humans existing 190,000 years before Adam and Eve often likely had long-lasting family loyalty, but with Adam and Eve, with the beginning of redemption history, it becomes God's law.

(Genesis 2:25) And they were both naked, the man and his wife, and were not ashamed.

The word "man" is the same Hebrew word as "Adam". The Hebrew does not say "the man" but merely "man".

Adam and Eve were married. There is no mention of a marriage ceremony; apparently marriage doesn't require this. It seems wrong that the Catholic Church insists you must be married with a big fancy institutional ceremony performed by priests.

It must have been a warm climate. Perhaps they used blankets when sleeping and perhaps they covered themselves with animal skins when it was cold, but there was no moral sense of shame associated with being naked.

(Genesis 3:1) Now the serpent was more subtle than any beast of the field which the LORD God had made. And he said unto the woman, Yea, hath God said, Ye shall not eat of every tree of the garden?

Adam and Eve had already noticed the animals were crafty, that is to say, having emotions and intelligence. Everyone knows this about animals, and that is why people like pets, because they provide companionship. But this particular animal, the serpent, was more crafty.

My theory about this serpent is that it was a now-extinct species of reptile which walked upright; probably a left-over dinosaur, perhaps a walking bird such as the ostrich. This particular serpent was possessed by Satan himself. The souls of Adam and Eve could hear Satan speaking, and they assumed it was the serpent speaking.

Adam is probably looking on while Eve converses with the serpent.

(Genesis 3:2) And the woman said unto the serpent, We may eat of the fruit of the trees of the garden:

(Genesis 3:3) But of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, God hath said, Ye shall not eat of it, neither shall ye touch it, lest ye die.

Notice that Adam added to the word of God in telling Eve not to even touch the fruit.This is a common theme in religious practice; in an effort to protect people, rules are added to keep them away from danger. The problem is that the new rules do not express the reality of the situation. In this case, it is not the touching of the fruit that is the issue. The serpent probably corrected the teaching about the fruit and stated that it is okay to touch it, to which Adam agreed. Then the serpent had Eve touch the fruit. Adam's reputation as a source of truth was tarnished and Adam stood by dumbly; embarrassed while the serpent did his work. If Adam had not invented this false rule (this false doctrine), Satan would not have been able to use this trick.

(Genesis 3:4) And the serpent said unto the woman, Ye shall not surely die:

We die daily because we finally die. Our entire life is shaped by the fact of our impending death. The risk of death is ever present in everything we do. In the New Heavens and New Earththere is no threat of death. Those whose mind and heart is firmly fixed on the future utopian life in the new heavens and new earth will live a different kind of life while in this life.

Notice that the serpent correctly quoted God's word but changed the meaning;they would not die physically, but spiritually. So technically it is correct to say both that they would die in that day but that they would not die. Rather than clearing up the possible confusion, Satan uses every trick he can to deceive.

(Genesis 3:5) For God doth know that in the day ye eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as gods, knowing good and evil.

Satan provides a false interpretation to God's word.Thus we see the principle that God's word requires proper interpretation. This implies that there be an infallible interpretation authority.The claim that the Bible is all that is needed is incorrect; we also need infallible interpretation. The many heresies throughout church history were based on the Bible.

All that Satan knows is how to be like God (or so he thinks). This is his driving passion and it is how he corrupts the human race. He thinks we want to be like God also.

It is hard to understand why knowing evil would be tempting to anyone. Perhaps Adam and Eve noticed that they were in a protective fog of ignorance, protected from the evil spirits by God's grace. In the New Heavens and New Earththe fog will be lifted once evil is vanquished.

(Genesis 3:6) And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was pleasant to the eyes, and a tree to be desired to make one wise, she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat, and gave also unto her husband with her; and he did eat.

Notice that wisdom is not all good.Certainly Solomon in all his wisdom was missing a key spiritual ingredient to living.

I think our modern civilization is making the same mistake in destroying the environment. We think we can do whatever we wish, chopping down all the trees, overfishing, over-grazing, dumping pollutants into the water and chemicals on the land to kill the pests.

The 3 enticing aspects...

  1. food
  2. beauty
  3. wisdom (knowledge of sin)

Adam was not deceived by the serpent directly, but he allowed the serpent's deception and participated in it.If he was watching on as the serpent discussed the matter with Eve then he was certainly guilty of not caring for her well-being; perhaps he was secretly hoping to find out what would really happen if someone ate the fruit and he let Eve do it knowing she might fall down dead on the spot.

Those who claim there was no death before the fall have a real problem since God clearly told Adam he would die if he ate the fruit. This would mean nothing if Adam had not already witnessed death among the animals in the garden of Eden.

Probably the serpent came to Eve as she was standing in front of the tree wondering about it. To avoid sin we need to stay away from things that lead to sin.

When Adam noticed Eve didn't drop dead after eating the fruit (perhaps he waited a day to be sure), he realized that God had lied so he ate. At this moment sin entered into the world as Adam switched his loyalty from God to Satan. God withdrew his protective grace and us humans have been buffeted by the evil powers of darkness ever since.

The only way to a restored fellowship with God is to reverse the process; to believe God's word and obey it. Notice that just as God's command to avoid eating the fruit is rather arbitrary, so also is his sending Jesus as savior. Both of these are outside of normal natural occurrences; both originate in God's will and plan.

(Genesis 3:7) And the eyes of them both were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig leaves together, and made themselves aprons [coverings].

I find it odd they would suddenly be modest since primitive tribes in warm climates are not modest in this way. Perhaps they merely reverted to what their parents had taught them; I don't think Adam and Eve were the first modern humans to make clothing. Perhaps clothing was only used for warmth and protection before but now that they needed redemption, they felt weird unclothed.

I suppose this verse supports the centuries old notion of the Church that sex is bad; that desire is a bad effect of the fall. Certainly improper desire is a result of the fall but desire itself is a human attribute.Buddhism is wrong: desire is not bad.

Where did they learn to sew? Perhaps God had taught them all this already. Or perhaps God had taught Adam this. God must have spent a long time with Adam, teaching him to speak, teaching him about the various animals, etc. Perhaps Adam had spent many hours standing before the tree wondering about it, hoping to find out its mystery some day. The parents of Adam probably sewed; maybe God taught Adam better techniques.

These aprons or girdles covered the private parts. Perhaps part of this spiritual awakening of the human race to God's divine law involves awareness of the proper use of the reproductive facility. This is why misuse of it is so wrong. Our modern culture flaunts this misuse and renders such unseemly activities as if they were public spectacles for all the world to see.

(Genesis 3:8) And they heard the voice of the LORD God walking in the garden in the cool of the day: and Adam and his wife hid themselves from the presence of the LORD God amongst the trees of the garden.

God had a physical form and was speaking or singing as he walked in the garden. Some assume this is a manifestation of a pre-incarnate Jesus. Perhaps so. Or perhaps it is an apparition. Or an angel. Presumably it's the same thing Adam had experienced all along.

In disobeying God's command they became aware that God was in some way a threat to them; they became afraid of God.

(Genesis 3:9) And the LORD God called unto Adam, and said unto him, Where art thou?

God calls to Adam, not to Eve. Adam is the one accountable to pass on God's law which was given to him directly by God.

(Genesis 3:10) And he said, I heard thy voice in the garden, and I was afraid, because I was naked; and I hid myself.

(Genesis 3:11) And he said, Who told thee that thou wast naked? Hast thou eaten of the tree, whereof I commanded thee that thou shouldest not eat?

Adam was unaware he was naked until someone told him. Disobeying God's command made Adam aware of a voice from the spiritual realm that told him things. Previously, the dark aspects of the spiritual realm were off limits to humans. But now, the human souls in the spiritual realmbegan to mingle with the wicked spiritual beings who had invaded earth.

I wonder what it was like for the other humans all over the world? Perhaps they started having weird dreams and a spiritual awakening. Perhaps this was the dawn of religion, building on religious sentiments that had existed since modern humans first appeared about 200,000 years ago (cave paintings, burial of the dead with objects.)

(Genesis 3:12) And the man said, The woman whom thou gavest to be with me, she gave me of the tree, and I did eat.

Adam's response hints that he did indeed let Eve eat the fruit first knowing it might kill her, and that he secretly wanted to eat it too. Once he observed it didn't kill her, then he ate too. This also implies Adam witnessed the encounter with the serpent.

Apparently they were aware that some fruits and berries were poisonous. This knowledge would be passed-on from generation to generation in a hunter-gatherer society. Perhaps when a new potential food item was discovered someone would volunteer to eat it first and everyone would wait to see what happened.

People make much of the shifting of blame by Adam but notice that Adam doesn't actually blame Eve, he merely reports on the sequence of events. What he doesn't do is positively state that, yes, he disobeyed God's command. Adam seems to be hoping that God will forget about the command if he just doesn't mention it. Probably Adam is feeling shame for allowing Eve to be the one who tested the unknown fruit to see if it was poisonous or not.

Adam is aware that God gave Eve to Adam. He doesn't blame God for this as is usually assumed, he merely mentions the fact. Notice Adam is bonded to Eve because God gave her to him.

(Genesis 3:13) And the LORD God said unto the woman, What is this that thou hast done? And the woman said, The serpent beguiled me, and I did eat.

Eve merely reported the facts dispassionately. What she didn't say was that she disobeyed God's command.

The keys to asking for God's forgiveness in the face of sin...

  1. Acknowledge God's law and command
  2. Admit to having violated it
  3. Admit it was wrong
  4. Ask for forgiveness

Neither Adam nor Eve did any of these steps. They merely reported what occurred without reference to God's command nor to whether what they did was a disloyal act.

(Genesis 3:14) And the LORD God said unto the serpent, Because thou hast done this, thou art cursed above all cattle, and above every beast of the field; upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life:

God doesn't ask the serpent what he did; he merely issues his judgment.

Perhaps this curse on that kind of serpent resulted in a rapid mutation due to a divinely-orchestrated gamma ray affecting the genes so that the offspring could no longer walk upright.

As an unrelated point, it seems demonic spirits have some control over the genes.

The cattlereferred to here are probably those domesticated by humans and used for food and materials including sheep, goats, and cattle. Animals were first domesticated about the time of Noah's flood, but agriculture began about the time of Adam.

(Genesis 3:15) And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel.

A key verse of redemption history which I discuss in detail elsewhere.

(Genesis 3:16) Unto the woman he said, I will greatly multiply thy sorrow and thy conception; in sorrow thou shalt bring forth children; and thy desire shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee.

I think part of the reason men rule over their wives is because they are too pig-headed and stubborn to give them their proper respect. Another factor is communication; no one really knows what the other person wants so it is impossible to come to a plan agreeable to both. In the new heavens and new earththis will no longer be a problem.

Some translations admit the translation is literally "and thy conception" but they translate it as "in thy conception." The word "sorrow" is elsewhere translated as "toil."Nowhere else does the usage of these words express the idea of pain yet the common understand of this verse is that it refers to increased pain during childbirth.

This verse refers to sorrow relating to issues such as childbearing and childrearing, and to relations between spouses.

Adam and Eve are not cursed by God; only the serpent is cursed. God is merely describing what will occur now that humans invited Satan to extend his spiritual rule over the moral aspect of human souls. Everyone says Adam and Eve were cursed at the fall but they weren't. There is no curse resulting from the fall except to the serpent and to the ground.

Perhaps the mention of the rulership of husband over wife refers merely to the patriarchical societies which became the norm; of men dominating women.

(Genesis 3:17) And unto Adam he said, Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree, of which I commanded thee, saying, Thou shalt not eat of it: cursed is the ground for thy sake; in sorrow shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life;

It's not because Adam listened to Eve that he is judged but rather, because he disobeyed God's command. Later we learn that Noah would comfort humans who must toil in sorrow because the ground was cursed of God.

Apparently, the garden of Eden was a farmers' paradise. Once ejected from the garden, farming would be much harder. They would always remember what they had before and wish they had it still.

Notice that Adam and Eve were farmers. Since agriculture began around 10,000 B.C., Adam and Eve appeared on the scene around that time. But modern humans had been around since 200,000 years ago so Adam was not the first human.

The domestication of animals only began about the time of Noah.At that time the curse on the ground was lifted since it is much easier to raise livestock than to hunt.

(Genesis 3:18) Thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth to thee; and thou shalt eat the herb of the field;

The word "herb" refers to agricultural products. But along with these were weeds.

It appears that God intended for humans to be vegetarians but the first modern humans 200,000 years ago were hunter-gatherers.Adam and Eve were farmers and ranchers. Finally, in the new heavens and new earth, things will be as God originally intended.

Our fate as fallen humans is to struggle and suffer in this life.

(Genesis 3:19) In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken: for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return.

At death the physical body become dust again. Until then we must struggle and toil to earn a living.

This predicament did not begin at the fall, even modern humans before Adam had to struggle and toil. The difference with Adam is that he could have ended it by choosing to eat of the tree of life. If he had done that, Satan would have been judged and the new heavens and new earthwould have started then.

(Genesis 3:20) And Adam called his wife's name Eve; because she was the mother of all living.

The word "Eve" means life or living. She was not the ancestor of all life, for example of animals, but only of modern humans after the age of redemption began. Notice the word "all" doesn't mean each and every last onebut rather, all of the category referred to; in this case, all humans who are descendants of Eve.

(Genesis 3:21) Unto Adam also and to his wife did the LORD God make coats of skins, and clothed them.

It is hard to believe God didn't want them to kill animals to use for clothing and for food; that this killing of an animal was just a one time occurrence. Probably, they watched on as God did this and this is how they learned to sacrifice animals, how to butcher them, how to prepare clothing and food from them — or at least improved techniques.

Those who wish to prove we are to be vegetarian neglect to consider the implications of this verse.

Later we learn of animal sacrifices.Perhaps God taught Adam and Eve how to sacrifice animals at this time. Part of this involved eating the meat and using parts of the animal for clothing and tools.

(Genesis 3:22) And the LORD God said, Behold, the man is become as one of us, to know good and evil: and now, lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live for ever:

God as Trinity knows good and evil. The difference between God and humans is that God is unpolluted by the powers of darkness, in fact, God cannot even look upon evil. Humans, however, are tangled-up in Satan's kingdom of darkness. In the new heavens and new earthafter Satan is cast for eternity into the lake of fire, humans will partake of the tree of life;they will live bodily forever.

(Genesis 3:23) Therefore the LORD God sent him forth from the garden of Eden, to till the ground from whence he was taken.

God's solution to keeping humans from partaking of the tree of life was to deny them entrance to the garden of Eden containing the tree of life.

Leaving the garden of Eden did not change their lifestyle; Adam and Eve were farmers and ranchers while in the garden, and they were farmers and ranchers afterwards.

(Genesis 3:24) So he drove out the man; and he placed at the east of the garden of Eden Cherubims, and a flaming sword which turned every way, to keep the way of the tree of life.

This location likely became a place of worship. Perhaps Adam built an altar there. Likely they would long for the days in the garden and wish they had obeyed God's command.

I wonder whether the Cherubims were always present there or whether they only appeared when people came to the spot? Perhaps some people tried to gain entrance to the garden and were actively blocked by the Cherubims.

Since Cherubims are spirit beings, they appeared in the form of an apparation — they have no physical body but can manifest in ways which might seem to us as if they do. Angels are able to affect changes in the physical realm as in the case of the angels pulling Lot insideand delivering judgment upon the earth.In my viewLucifer was active in designing and creating the universe and in evolution, not by his own power, but by power given him by God.

(Genesis 4:1) And Adam knew Eve his wife; and she conceived, and bare Cain, and said, I have gotten a man from the LORD.

The Hebrew word for "acquired" is qanah which sounds like "Qayin" (Cain). Notice that Eve named Cain based on the circumstances at the time. It is all-too-common for Bible interpreters to reverse this — they use the name someone gave to something as if that name caused the events.

(Genesis 4:2) And she again bare his brother Abel. And Abel was a keeper of sheep, but Cain was a tiller of the ground.

At the time of Adam and Eve there farming. This means that Adam and Eve came on the scene about 10,000 B.C. after agriculture had appeared. (But there were humans long before this.)Abel and Cain specialized: Abel had sheep; Cain was a farmer. Presumably Adam and Eve did both.

The domestication of animals and ranching did not occur in earnest until after Noah's flood. Perhaps Abel's novel explorations into ranching and the domestication of animals was something God wished to encourage — but Cain put an end to this trend. It would have to wait until the time of Noah for wholesale ranching to appear and transform the world.

(Genesis 4:3) And in process of time it came to pass, that Cain brought of the fruit of the ground an offering unto the LORD.

This verse doesn't bode well for vegetarians who claim the Bible teaches we are not to eat meat. God wished animals to be sacrificed; vegetarian products were not suitable.

Notice that from the beginning of redemption history offerings to the Lord were practiced. This does not bode well for those who claim that "religion" is bad.

(Genesis 4:4) And Abel, he also brought of the firstlings of his flock and of the fat thereof. And the LORD had respect unto Abel and to his offering:

Abel's regular animal sacrifices pleasing to God suggests humans regularly ate meat. They sacrificed and butchered and, presumably, ate animals, after all, the Levites ate the sacrificed animals. Animals were probably obtained mostly by hunting since large-scale ranching did not begin until the time of Noah after the floodbut apparently there was some ranching even in Abel's day.

Perhaps Satan provoked Cain to murder Abel to stamp out animal sacrifice as this was an important ingredient in redemption history. Animal sacrifice was the precursor to Christ's sacrificial atoning death. If there were no animal sacrifice there could be no subsequent atonement of a redeemer.

(Genesis 4:5) But unto Cain and to his offering he had not respect. And Cain was very wroth [angry], and his countenance fell.

The sacrifice that was accepted by God was the one involving killing an animal. In the book of Leviticus we learn about grain offeringsso we know God accepts them. I think the issue is that Cain refused to offer animals in sacrifice, perhaps because he didn't have any to offer. Presumably he did this in violation of the tradition established by God when he provided clothing for Adam and Eve.

We should wonder how it was that God showed his rejection of Cain's offering. Perhaps they all brought their offerings to the same place as a community and Adam, as priest, rejected Cain's offering. Presumably, Cain knew ahead of time his offering was unlawful but brought it anyway out of willful disobedience. Perhaps he didn't want to give up a valuable animal or perhaps his offering of grains was very small and stingy, this indicating Cain didn't take the institution of sacrifice seriously. It seems he didn't take the seriousness of sin seriously either.

(Genesis 4:6) And the LORD said unto Cain, Why art thou wroth [angry]? and why is thy countenance fallen?

Presumably this was a private conversation between Cain and God. We don't know whether Cain only heard God's voice or whether he also saw a human-like figure, perhaps an apparition.

Some teach that many of these encounters with God in the Old Testament were interactions with a pre-incarnate Christ as the "Angel of the Lord"; I have no opinion about this. These appearances are just as easily explained as apparitions. Apparitions have corresponding physical phenomena such as wind, sounds, appearances of people, and changes in the sun. The angels who went to save Lot materialized and were able to pull Lot back inside the door; yet these were not the pre-incarnate Christ. A common theme of encounters with God are that the person recognizes they are in the presence of God, or of an angel of the Lord, or of angels from the Lord.

(Genesis 4:7) If thou doest well, shalt thou not be accepted? and if thou doest not well, sin lieth at the door. And unto thee shall be his [its] desire, and thou shalt rule over him [it].

The spiritual powers of darkness seek to destroy us but we must overcome them. Here we see that evil is not merely the absence of good but it is, rather, a living spiritual essence of a living entity; it is the willful actions of a living being.

God commands Cain to overcome the temptations to do evil. Cain disobeys as we shall see.

(Genesis 4:8) And Cain talked with Abel his brother: and it came to pass, when they were in the field, that Cain rose up against Abel his brother, and slew him.

Apparently people of the day knew how to kill each other. Cain probably witnessed this kind of event many times.It would not be clear how to kill someone by merely watching the animals do it.

Cain was probably psychotic, schizophrenic, paranoiac, or melancholic.

(Genesis 4:9) And the LORD said unto Cain, Where is Abel thy brother? And he said, I know not: Am I my brother's keeper?

Martin Luther insisted the question from the Lord was Adam speaking the words of the Lord to Cain under the influence of the Holy Spirit. This interpretation sets a very bad precedent. Using this methodology, we can look for a human speaker every time we encounter the phrase "the Lord said". (I prefer a strictly literalinterpretation.) Luther seems to assume Adam and Cain were the only two male humans alive at the time, that Adam had female children but no other males except Cain and Abel.

God communicated with Cain's soul in some way.

(Genesis 4:10) And he said, What hast thou done? the voice of thy brother's blood crieth unto me from the ground.

People usually interpret the voice in this verse figuratively; I prefer to interpret it literally— Abel's voice literally calls out to God. Blood of course doesn't have a voice nor can blood spilled on the ground speak. Souls can speak but the sound is spiritual; it's not of sound waves moving through the air. The soul of Abel calls out to God from the spiritual realm.

(Genesis 4:11) And now art thou cursed from the earth, which hath opened her mouth to receive thy brother's blood from thy hand;

Just as David's life took a permanent turn for the worse after his sin,so also of Cain. The effects of sin are the same as being cursed. God doesn't curse us a punishment for our sin, rather, the sin itself causes events to unfold in an undesirable manner; the sin causes the curse.

(Genesis 4:12) When thou tillest the ground, it shall not henceforth yield unto thee her strength; a fugitive and a vagabond shalt thou be in the earth.

Probably God's interaction with Cain caused him to have grief and remorse which would interfere with his ability to be productive. Perhaps God allowed demons to vex Cain causing him to spend the remainder of his life running and hiding in mental turmoil.

Perhaps Cain went mad and couldn't focus his energies on farming anymore; whenever he tried, the demons in his head prevented him from persevering long enough to see its fruits.

(Genesis 4:13) And Cain said unto the LORD, My punishment is greater than I can bear.

The events of this verse may have occurred a long time after the previous verse, after Cain has had time to experience the effects of his cursed life.

It is hard to have sympathy for Cain. Presumably he has already suffered the effects of his encounter with God. God's holiness, when it shines on the soul of a sinner, causes pain and suffering in an unrepentant heart.

(Genesis 4:14) Behold, thou hast driven me out this day from the face of the earth; and from thy face shall I be hid; and I shall be a fugitive and a vagabond in the earth; and it shall come to pass, that every one that findeth me shall slay me.

The question is, who would kill Cain? According to most views, the only living humans were Adam, Eve, Cain, and perhaps a few sisters of Cain. In my view there were other modern humans before Adam and Eve.

(Genesis 4:15) And the LORD said unto him, Therefore whosoever slayeth Cain, vengeance shall be taken on him sevenfold. And the LORD set a mark upon Cain, lest any finding him should kill him.

This verse demonstrates that the phrase "seven times" is idiomatic and merely means "more than."

Perhaps the mark was a tattoo, something so wild and crazy that it scared others from harming him. Perhaps they thought he was a crazy psychopath and stayed away from him. Perhaps the way in which God put the mark upon Cain was to allow the demons to influence him such that he became psychotic and mentally deranged. There is no evidence that Cain repented of his wicked deeds nor that he sought God's forgiveness.

Notice how God protects Cain; by threatening harm, a sort of divine mutually assured destruction.

(Genesis 4:16) And Cain went out from the presence of the LORD, and dwelt in the land of Nod, on the east of Eden.

Nod is on the southwest banks of the Caspian Sea, east of Eden.Eden was near Tabriz, Iran.

I wonder whether the meaning here is that Cain should have stayed in the presence of the Lord, that he should have begged for forgiveness?

The phrase "presence of the Lord" may refer to the place, the altar, where the community offered sacrifices.

(Genesis 4:17) And Cain knew his wife; and she conceived, and bare Enoch: and he builded a city, and called the name of the city, after the name of his son, Enoch.

Civilization requires cities. Here we see the beginning of cities, the beginning of civilization. But the first civilization occurs later,after Noah's flood.

The word "know" is here used as a euphemism for conjugal relations. Usually the word merely means "to know". I prefer strictly literal interpretationbut here is a case in which the text clearly uses a figure of speech, an idiom.

Even today people and corporations name bridges, stadiums, buildings, and cities after themselves.

(Genesis 4:18) And unto Enoch was born Irad: and Irad begat Mehujael: and Mehujael begat Methusael: and Methusael begat Lamech.

This is not the Lamech who is the father of Noah.

(Genesis 4:19) And Lamech took unto him two wives: the name of the one was Adah, and the name of the other Zillah.

Polygamy was practiced from the beginning of redemption history. It seems that, just as in today's society, the concept of marriage was not as God originally intended.

(Genesis 4:20) And Adah bare Jabal: he was the father of such as dwell in tents, and of such as have cattle.

The word "cattle" probably refers to all animals that can be domesticated. After Abel's attempt to domesticate animals ended upon his deathothers dabbled in it. But it was not until after Noah's flood that ranching began in earnest.

(Genesis 4:21) And his brother's name was Jubal: he was the father of all such as handle the harp and organ.

The harp probably used strings made from animal sinews; these were plucked with the fingernails or a piece of wood. The organ probably had a vibrating reed; perhaps it was like the pan flute with several pipes which generated sound by being blown upon, or perhaps it was more like a bagpipe.

(Genesis 4:22) And Zillah, she also bare Tubalcain, an instructer of every artificer in brass and iron: and the sister of Tubalcain was Naamah.

The use of iron began about 4,000 B.C. in the area near Eden; brass, bronze, and other copper alloys were used before that. Copper was first used in northern Iran about 8,700 B.C. which is where Eden was located.

(Genesis 4:23) And Lamech said unto his wives, Adah and Zillah, Hear my voice; ye wives of Lamech, hearken unto my speech: for I have slain a man to my wounding, and a young man to my hurt.

Other translations say "for wounding me" and "for injuring me". Perhaps Lamech was acting in self-defense.

(Genesis 4:24) If Cain shall be avenged sevenfold, truly Lamech seventy and sevenfold.

He wanted his wives to know he was under God's protection and they were therefore safe.

77 is an idiom. "7 times"means "more than" and 77 means "way more than". Presumably the word "avenge" refers to God's protection of Lamech as with Cain.

Lamech presumed that if Cain was not executed for his crime of murder, then he himself would not be either. Apparently leaders could declare themselves or others as under protection.

(Genesis 4:25) And Adam knew his wife again; and she bare a son, and called his name Seth: For God, said she, hath appointed [granted] me another seed instead of Abel, whom Cain slew.

The word "Seth" sounds like the Hebrew word for "granted". Notice that Eve named Seth based on the circumstances at the time. It is all-too-common for Bible interpreters to reverse this — they use the name someone gave to something as if that name caused the events.

For both Cainand Seth it is Eve who names them and who seems involved with them. This is a natural role for women since they are the ones who actually give birth.

(Genesis 4:26) And to Seth, to him also there was born a son; and he called his name Enos [Enosh]: then began men to call upon the name of the LORD.

Perhaps men began to call on the Lord because Noah began preaching. Enosh died when Noah was 84 years old; perhaps Noah had started his preaching ministry by then although it was another 516 years (maybe 600 years) until the flood. Presumably Noah began building the ark 50 to 97 years before the flood. And we should assume Noah learned his pity and devotion from someone; it was passed-on to him.

Perhaps the calling on the name of the Lord is related to humans clumping together into cities, the roots of civilization.But not all are of God as we shall see.

Perhaps men began to call on the Lord because of Enoch;he must have been a holy man since he was taken into heaven supernaturally, without dying.

Perhaps men began to call on the Lord because the line of Seth was the Godly line of redemption history. Perhaps the wickedness leading to the flood was not present in the families of these patriarchs,these descendants of Seth starting with Enosh.

(Genesis 5:1) This is the book of the generations of Adam. In the day that God created man, in the likeness of God made he him;

Note that this section is a book. Perhaps Moses copied-in this section from an ancient writing he had in his possession. The generations of Adam are Adam's (and Eve's) descendants. The entire human race is the generations of Adam but this list singles out certain patriarchs starting with Adam and leading up to Noah. Perhaps Noah is the one who wrote the book that Moses used.

God created Adam in his image, in his likeness.Ultimately, after Christ assumed human nature into God's nature, humans would become deified.Notice that God created man on a certain day.

The word "man" is the same Hebrew word as "Adam" but here it likely refers to humans.

Twice the phrase "these are the generations" is a postscript or coda referring to the preceeding events.

(Genesis 5:2) Male and female created he them; and blessed them, and called their name Adam, in the day when they were created.

This verse refers to the creation of the first humans about 200,000 years ago in Ethopia. The man Adam was created about 10,000 B.C.

This verse and the previous are worded very strangely if you accept the usual view that Adam was the very first modern human. But in my view, the problem is solved. Verse 5:1 mentions Adam, the first man of redemption history, created about 10,000 B.C. It mentions that God created humans in God's likeness. But since there had been modern humans since 200,000 years ago verse 5:2 refers to them, also created by God in his image.

The word "Adam" is the same Hebrew word as "man".

(Genesis 5:3) And Adam lived an hundred and thirty years, and begat a son in his own likeness, after his image; and called his name Seth:

God created humans in his likeness and the children of humans are in the likeness of the parents. God implanted his likeness in humans so that it would propagate from generation to generation. This refers to the physical form and the genetic code but also to the fact that God creates the soulof each person upon conception.

In choosing to procreate children we are acting on behalf of God who honors his covenant with the human race by creating a soul for each new human.

In a similar sense, Marythe mother of Jesus is the Co-redemptrix and Mediatrix of redemption history; in being singled-out to be the mother of the redeemer and in agreeing to do so, she participates in the redemption of humans and continues to do so by virtue of her role as the mother of Jesus, as the one who gave birth to him and who raised him from infancy to adulthood.

Those who object to the long lifespans should consider: when adding it all up you discover that all died before the flood. If the long lifespans is myth we should expect errors. But it all adds up perfectly and the dates correspond perfectly: If Adam appeared at the beginning of the agriculture era then the flood occurred at the end of the last glacial period of the Quaternary ice age about 10,000 years ago and the domestication of animals occurred then. It all fits the Genesis account perfectly.

(Genesis 5:4) And the days of Adam after he had begotten Seth were eight hundred years: and he begat sons and daughters:

(Genesis 5:5) And all the days that Adam lived were nine hundred and thirty years: and he died.

The first humans of redemption history lived much longer than humans of today. Perhaps they also lived longer than the other modern humans from 200,000 years ago.I wonder if this is one of the benefits God imparted to Adam? but over time if faded, especially after the flood.

(Genesis 5:6) And Seth lived an hundred and five years, and begat Enos:

(Genesis 5:7) And Seth lived after he begat Enos eight hundred and seven years, and begat sons and daughters:

(Genesis 5:8) And all the days of Seth were nine hundred and twelve years: and he died.

(Genesis 5:9) And Enos [Enosh] lived ninety years, and begat Cainan:

(Genesis 5:10) And Enos [Enosh] lived after he begat Cainan eight hundred and fifteen years, and begat sons and daughters:

(Genesis 5:11) And all the days of Enos [Enosh] were nine hundred and five years: and he died.

(Genesis 5:12) And Cainan lived seventy years, and begat Mahalaleel:

(Genesis 5:13) And Cainan lived after he begat Mahalaleel eight hundred and forty years, and begat sons and daughters:

(Genesis 5:14) And all the days of Cainan were nine hundred and ten years: and he died.

(Genesis 5:15) And Mahalaleel lived sixty and five years, and begat Jared:

(Genesis 5:16) And Mahalaleel lived after he begat Jared eight hundred and thirty years, and begat sons and daughters:

(Genesis 5:17) And all the days of Mahalaleel were eight hundred ninety and five years: and he died.

(Genesis 5:18) And Jared lived an hundred sixty and two years, and he begat Enoch:

(Genesis 5:19) And Jared lived after he begat Enoch eight hundred years, and begat sons and daughters:

(Genesis 5:20) And all the days of Jared were nine hundred sixty and two years: and he died.

(Genesis 5:21) And Enoch lived sixty and five years, and begat Methuselah:

(Genesis 5:22) And Enoch walked with God after he begat Methuselah three hundred years, and begat sons and daughters:

This verse does not say Enochonly began walking with God after his son Methuselah was born; likely he walked with God long before that. Perhaps he was a prophet and received knowledge of the workings of the spiritual realm as indicated in the Book of Enoch. (I am not endorsing the Book of Enoch.)

(Genesis 5:23) And all the days of Enoch were three hundred sixty and five years:

(Genesis 5:24) And Enoch walked with God: and he was not; for God took him.

Perhaps Enoch is the one referred to, that men began to call on the name of the Lord.

Only three people were taken directly to heaven without dying: Enoch, Elijah,and Mary.

(Genesis 5:25) And Methuselah lived an hundred eighty and seven years, and begat Lamech:

(Genesis 5:26) And Methuselah lived after he begat Lamech seven hundred eighty and two years, and begat sons and daughters:

(Genesis 5:27) And all the days of Methuselah were nine hundred sixty and nine years: and he died.

(Genesis 5:28) And Lamech lived an hundred eighty and two years, and begat a son:

This is a different Lamech than the one from the line of Cain.

(Genesis 5:29) And he called his name Noah, saying, This same shall comfort us concerning our work and toil of our hands, because of the ground which the LORD hath cursed.

Perhaps the comfort from Noah was his preaching about righteousness and redemption. The day-to-day struggles of this world are easier to endure when we have our minds fixed on Jesus and on eternity in his presence in the new heavens and new earth.

After Noah's flood, God would no longer curse the ground.

(Genesis 5:30) And Lamech lived after he begat Noah five hundred ninety and five years, and begat sons and daughters:

(Genesis 5:31) And all the days of Lamech were seven hundred seventy and seven years: and he died.

(Genesis 5:32) And Noah was five hundred years old: and Noah begat Shem, Ham, and Japheth.


(Genesis 6:1) And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them,

(Genesis 6:2) That the sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives of all which they chose.

In my view the sons of Godreferred to are wicked spirits; they possessed human (or non-human hominid) males via demon possession and performed genetic engineering to create a race of giants. These giants were not human but were useful to these wicked spirits as providing good homes for their demon possession. Wicked spirits who "keep not their first estate"love to inhabit living creatures; they do it in the Old and New Testaments possessing humans and even animals. I suspect the demons get their hideous form from the animals they have possessed; somehow they take on the animal characteristics of the creatures they possess.

The phrase "sons of God" in the Old Testament always refers to spirit beings, good angels or fallen angels.The book of Job uses the phrase this way in recounting Job's story which took place long after the events of this verse. Later in the New Testament (and the book of Wisdom)it refers also to the redeemed.

Apparently these wicked spirits were only able to perform genetic engineering on the males who would then reproduce with females in the normal way.

I recognize that my view of spirit beings able to possess humans and to perform genetic engineering is considered heretical by some, but the Biblical textsseem to demand this interpretation; all other interpretations seem contrived.

(Genesis 6:3) And the LORD said, My spirit shall not always strive with man, for that he also is flesh: yet his days shall be an hundred and twenty years.

In response, God triggered some already-existing mechanism to limit the lifespan of humans. Apparently this was to help thwart the activities of the wicked spirits.

The flood would begin in 120 years.

This verse confirms that the topic concerns human physical nature. This implies that God's judgment is also physical, in this case, the flood.

(Genesis 6:4) There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare children to them, the same became mighty men which were of old, men of renown.

This whole reference to giants (Nephilim) is very mysterious. It seems to be the reason for the flood in some fundamental way but once the giants are mentioned, the topic is dropped; the theme of violence is emphasized repeatedly after this.

It seems this occurrence is the reason God destroyed the world; some kind of genetic deformation of humanity.

There were also Nephilim after the flood.If God's purpose in the flood was to forever destroy the Nephilim why did he allow them again after the flood? Or why did he not wipe out the world again with a second flood? Perhaps the first time, the Nephilim, having advanced weapons, could have and would have wiped out the human race, but by the time of Moses the Israelites had better weapons with fewer Nephilim. It appears there was even a third incidence of Nephilim during David's time.

Wicked and Corrupt

(Genesis 6:5) And God saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually.

God noticed then what is certainly obvious today; humans are corrupt and depraved. Even Christians burn other Christians at the stake.

(Genesis 6:6) And it repented the LORD that he had made man on the earth, and it grieved him at his heart.

God wished the evil had not infected the human race.

(Genesis 6:7) And the LORD said, I will destroy man whom I have created from the face of the earth; both man, and beast, and the creeping thing, and the fowls of the air; for it repenteth me that I have made them.

If God's reason for destroying humans was merely because they were corrupt, why would he not also do it again today; or during any number of other periods of human history?

(Genesis 6:8) But Noah found grace in the eyes of the LORD.

(Genesis 6:9) These are the generations of Noah: Noah was a just man and perfect in his generations, and Noah walked with God.

Noah's genetic makeup was not contaminated through breeding with physical manifestations of demonic spirits or with genetically engineered offspring of demon-possessed humans.

(Genesis 6:10) And Noah begat three sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth.

People usually assume all of humanity today is descended from these three sons of Noah, but this is not the case. Modern humans had migrated all over the world long before the time of Adam and Noah's flood was not global.

(Genesis 6:11) The earth also was corrupt before God, and the earth was filled with violence.

Conditions were a lot like today. More people were killed in the 1900's than in all of human history before. And this trend continues on into the 2000's...

(Genesis 6:12) And God looked upon the earth, and, behold, it was corrupt; for all flesh had corrupted his way upon the earth.

The word "flesh"refers to the physical aspect of humans, their sinful actions performed bodily.

(Genesis 6:13) And God said unto Noah, The end of all flesh is come before me; for the earth is filled with violence through them; and, behold, I will destroy them with the earth.

An example of the word "all"not meaning each and every last one. Even proponents of a global flood must admit of exceptions; Noah and the others on the ark. In my view this is limited to those who would be wiped-out in the flood where this especially sinister genetic engineering by the spirit beings was occurring.

Noah's Ark

(Genesis 6:14) Make thee an ark of gopher wood; rooms shalt thou make in the ark, and shalt pitch it within and without with pitch.

(Genesis 6:15) And this is the fashion which thou shalt make it of: The length of the ark shall be three hundred cubits, the breadth of it fifty cubits, and the height of it thirty cubits.

The ark was really, really big; the same size as the largest ferry out of Seattle: 450 feet x 75 feet x 45 feet high. (A cubit is about 18 inches; a foot and a half.) We will never find even a scrap of the ark because it was too valuable to leave laying around — all that high-quality lumber and bitumen just waiting for the taking.

Someone recently built a half-size ark in three years with modern tools. It would take at least 8 times (2 x 2 x 2) longer to build an ark the correct size plus maybe double or triple accounting for the primitive tools. This totals to perhaps 100 years to build the ark.

(Genesis 6:16) A window shalt thou make to the ark, and in a cubit shalt thou finish it above; and the door of the ark shalt thou set in the side thereof; with lower, second, and third stories shalt thou make it.

The single window was very near the top, only 18 inches from the top. Probably it barely cleared the water and the ark floated mostly under water.

There was a door on the side (not on the end). Probably this door was also near the top just like the window; it would be easier to seal to keep out the water. This would require a large ramp up to it on the outside, perhaps of dirt, and other ramps inside between the three floors. People assume the entrance to the ark is to the bottom floor but I suggest the entrance was to the top floor.

(Genesis 6:17) And, behold, I, even I, do bring a flood of waters upon the earth, to destroy all flesh, wherein is the breath of life, from under heaven; and every thing that is in the earth shall die.

A few problems with the global flood theory which are so obvious...

  1. The freshwater lakes and rivers would become salty as they mixed with seawater and all the freshwater fish would die.
  2. There are over 6 million species of land creatures (12 million creatures on the ark, one male, one female). This means there would be 8 creatures per cubic foot aboard the ark. They would quickly run out of oxygen. The smaller creatures would be crushed to death in the stampedes.
  3. If you insist there are far fewer "kinds", perhaps only a few thousand, you are faced with rapid evolution occurring after the ark unloads as these small number of kinds become 6 million distinct species.
  4. If it took a week to board the ark, 20 creatures would board per second.
  5. Some species would not be able to travel to the ark since they were dispersed on the many continents.
  6. Some creatures such as gnats and birds might survive the flood on driftwood so they wouldn't need to board the ark. But this verse says "all"flesh,not "all except a few straggler survivors."
  7. The global flood theory contradicts this verse: it says the flood will destroy "all" flesh and "everything" will die. Clearly the words "all" and "everything" refer to a subset of everything; to a certain class or category only.

My view of what occurred: There was a huge local flood, perhaps the filling of the Black Sea from the Mediterranean Sea or the flooding of the Caspian Sea. (The Black Sea is thousands of feet deep but was perhaps only 350 feet below sea level before the flood.) Most of humanity lived in this small area near this fresh water lake and all the giants (Nephilim) lived there. They could not escape the flood waters, but it was not so turbulent as to break-apart the ark which was, after all, only made of wood. (Tide waters can inundate huge areas with 12 feet of water in a few hours with very little commotion, so the flood was much rougher than that — faster than people could run.) Noah took on board everything he would need to start life anew after the flood was over. He brought on board his herds of animals, grains, seeds, tools, lumber, food, pottery, etc. There were no lions and tigers and bears (oh my!) on board the ark; all the animals were domesticated farm animals: clean animals used for sacrifice and food; other unclean animals used for fur and other parts.

Peter clarifies what is going on here:God brought the flood upon the world of the ungodly. These were (1) the giants (Nephilim) who were all killed, and (2) a large part (all) of wicked humanity. All life in the flood zone was killed as this verse states. In the Bible, the word "all" often doesn't mean "each and every last one."

The word "flesh"here refers to physical bodies.

(Genesis 6:18) But with thee will I establish my covenant; and thou shalt come into the ark, thou, and thy sons, and thy wife, and thy sons' wives with thee.

Being saved by the ark was a covenant from God. Noah spent perhaps 100 years constructing the ark and dedicated this long episode of his life to the preparation for saving humanity. A covenant with God takes effort and commitment on our part; it is no free ride.

Presumably, all three of Noah's sons were already born and perhaps married when God told Noah to build the ark; maybe 50 to 97 years before the flood.

Some say this covenant from God to Noah was made before Noah's sons were born.But it doesn't seem to me that the events in this passage are intended to be strictly chronological.

(Genesis 6:19) And of every living thing of all flesh, two of every sort shalt thou bring into the ark, to keep them alive with thee; they shall be male and female.

Two of each kind of animal was required for breeding.

The various verses about this topic...

  1. Verse 6:19 2 of each kind of animal so they can breed.
  2. Verse 6:20 The same as above.
  3. Verse 7:2 7 pairs of clean animals (some are eaten, some are sacrificedand maybe eaten, 2 are for breeding); 2 pairs of unclean animals (these are not eaten.)
  4. Verse 7:3 The same as above but for birds.
  5. Verse 8:20 An example of verse 7:2; burnt offerings are not eaten.

(Genesis 6:20) Of fowls after their kind, and of cattle after their kind, of every creeping thing of the earth after his kind, two of every sort shall come unto thee, to keep them alive.

Young earth global flood creationists make much of the word "kind" since they reject macroevolution and are aware of the severe space limitations in the ark. These kinds must undergo absurdly rapid microevolution once released from the ark. But the word "kind" seems to refer merely to each particular animal having others of the same species. Thus, there are two (or more) of such and such kind of sheep, two (or more) of such and such kind of cow, two (or more) of such and such kind of turkey, and etc.

I reject the notion of a global flood.Thus, in bringing animals aboard the ark Noah was not saving them from extinction; rather, he was providing for his future livelihood in the harsh conditions after the flood.

(Genesis 6:21) And take thou unto thee of all food that is eaten, and thou shalt gather it to thee; and it shall be for food for thee, and for them.

A year's supply of food for Noah's family and all his animals is a lot of food; it must have taken decades to collect and prepare it all.

(Genesis 6:22) Thus did Noah; according to all that God commanded him, so did he.

(Genesis 7:1) And the LORD said unto Noah, Come thou and all thy house into the ark; for thee have I seen righteous before me in this generation.

(Genesis 7:2) Of every clean beast thou shalt take to thee by sevens, the male and his female: and of beasts that are not clean by two, the male and his female.

7 pairs of each kind of clean animal used for eating and for offering up in sacrifice and for breeding. Critics cite this as a major discrepancy; was it 2 or 7? The answer is: both. 2 for breeding, 5 pairs for eating and sacrifice. Unclean animals were not sacrificed nor eaten so the only consideration was breeding.

These numbers of animals are the minimum number. Two animals are required for breeding. God requires 7 pairs of animals for sacrifice. Noah brought many more than these, probably all of his flocks and herds, perhaps thousandsof sheep, cattle, turkeys, and etc.

We might wonder why they even cared about unclean animals since they didn't eat them nor sacrifice them. Some examples of unclean animals: pigs, dogs, cats, donkey, horse, mule, camel, mouse, rabbit, bees, lizards, snakes, turtles, frogs. Perhaps of main interest to the humans in Noah's day were the work animals such as mule, donkey, ass, camel, horse.

(Genesis 7:3) Of fowls also of the air by sevens, the male and the female; to keep seed alive upon the face of all the earth.

Only 2 of each species are required to prevent extinction. The 7 pairs of clean birds are for food and sacrifice and for breeding. Probably this verse is a compressed version of the previous verse but addressing birds. What goes unspoken is that it is the 2 birds.

(Genesis 7:4) For yet seven days, and I will cause it to rain upon the earth forty days and forty nights; and every living substance that I have made will I destroy from off the face of the earth.

The flood would begin in 7 days.

An example of the word "all" not meaning each and every one.Noah didn't have to take plants on the ark and they would all be preserved. Nor did he take fish and other water creatures. Plus, Noah and his family were spared.

(Genesis 7:5) And Noah did according unto all that the LORD commanded him.

(Genesis 7:6) And Noah was six hundred years old when the flood of waters was upon the earth.

This verse indicates the flood occurred 1,656 years after Adam appeared, roughly 8,500 B.C. The last glacial period of the Quaternary ice age ended about 10,000 years ago (this was the start of the Holocene geological epoch) and resulted in huge floods all over the world.

(Genesis 7:7) And Noah went in, and his sons, and his wife, and his sons' wives with him, into the ark, because of the waters of the flood.

(Genesis 7:8) Of clean beasts, and of beasts that are not clean, and of fowls, and of every thing that creepeth upon the earth,

Some of the animals on the ark were not clean, in other words, they didn't sacrifice these nor eat these. They used them for fur and other parts.

(Genesis 7:9) There went in two and two unto Noah into the ark, the male and the female, as God had commanded Noah.

(Genesis 7:10) And it came to pass after seven days, that the waters of the flood were upon the earth.

They loaded the ark 7 days before the rain began; and waited. I can imagine them looking around at Noah and asking where the rain is?

(Genesis 7:11) In the six hundredth year of Noah's life, in the second month, the seventeenth day of the month, the same day were all the fountains [springs] of the great deep broken up, and the windows [floodgates] of heaven were opened.

Year 600, month 2, day 17 of Noah's life.

Perhaps a large storm near the Bosporus Strait having huge waves caused this natural dam to be breached. So there was rain followed by the waters surging in from the Mediterrean Sea.

The water came from 2 sources: (1) the fountains of the great deep, and (2) the windows of heaven. In other words, from below and above.

Springs don't normally shoot up water high into the air, rather, you bring a bucket and fill it up from the resulting pool of water. A lake filling due to a swollen river fits this image.

When rain falls from the clouds it is as if their windows are opened. Sometimes in heavy thundershowers it actually seems like there are floodgates that were opened, the rain is so abrupt and heavy.

(Genesis 7:12) And the rain was upon the earth forty days and forty nights.

Perhaps the turmoil resulted in long-lasting rain.

Where I live it is not uncommon to experience 6 weeks of steady rain.

(Genesis 7:13) In the selfsame day entered Noah, and Shem, and Ham, and Japheth, the sons of Noah, and Noah's wife, and the three wives of his sons with them, into the ark;

Notice how the text jumps back in time from the rain to the 7 days before the rain began; this is common in the Bible. People often try to force strictly chronological interpretations but this makes no sense as a general procedure.

(Genesis 7:14) They, and every beast after his kind, and all the cattle after their kind, and every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind, and every fowl after his kind, every bird of every sort.

(Genesis 7:15) And they went in unto Noah into the ark, two and two of all flesh, wherein is the breath of life.

Living creatures breathe. When breathing stops, life stops. Creatures that don't breathe such are single-celled organisms are not included in this description since the humans of the day were not aware of them.

(Genesis 7:16) And they that went in, went in male and female of all flesh, as God had commanded him: and the LORD shut him in.

The word "him" refers to Noah from the previous verse. The syntax and grammar is not modern. We must not insist on modern syntax and grammar when interpreting the Bible. They had a different way of stringing words together back then.

(Genesis 7:17) And the flood was forty days upon the earth; and the waters increased, and bare up the ark, and it was lift up above the earth.

Not only did it rain for 40 days, now we learn that the water was on the earth for 40 days. Apparently, the water level increased for 40 days.

(Genesis 7:18) And the waters prevailed, and were increased greatly upon the earth; and the ark went upon the face of the waters.

The phrase "face of the waters" is used earlier in the creation account.There, the Holy Spirit hovers over the surface of the water and of the earth because that is where life is. Fish under the water are ignored.

(Genesis 7:19) And the waters prevailed exceedingly upon the earth; and all the high hills [mountains], that were under the whole heaven, were covered.

The word "all"doesn't mean each and every one of every possibility; rather, it means all of those referred to in the current context. In this case, it means Noah couldn't see land. The Salton Sea in southern California is only 35 miles long and you can't see land on the other side. All the hills under the sky visible to Noah were covered with water. Relatively small hills were considered mountains.

(Genesis 7:20) Fifteen cubits upward did the waters prevail; and the mountains were covered.

A cubit is 18 inches. 23 feet of water is not enough to cover even the largest termite mound, certainly not a mountain! Probably this refers to the depth of the water up the sides of the ark, about halfway up (the ark was 45 feet tall).

(Genesis 7:21) And all flesh died that moved upon the earth, both of fowl, and of cattle, and of beast, and of every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth, and every man:

Turkeys died because they can't fly. The flood waters were too fast for people to run from.

(Genesis 7:22) All in whose nostrils was the breath of life, of all that was in the dry land, died.

It's called dry land even though it was wet.

(Genesis 7:23) And every living substance [thing] was destroyed which was upon the face of the ground, both man, and cattle, and the creeping things, and the fowl of the heaven; and they were destroyed from the earth: and Noah only remained alive, and they that were with him in the ark.

(Genesis 7:24) And the waters prevailed upon the earth an hundred and fifty days.

The flood water was on the ground for 5 months.

(Genesis 8:1) And God remembered Noah, and every living thing, and all the cattle that was with him in the ark: and God made a wind to pass over the earth, and the waters asswaged [receded];

Wind is a good way to speed up the evaporation of water.

(Genesis 8:2) The fountains also of the deep and the windows of heaven were stopped, and the rain from heaven was restrained;

The rain stopped after 40 days. Apparently, the flooding went on for much longer but finally subsided before 5 months.

(Genesis 8:3) And the waters returned from off the earth continually: and after the end of the hundred and fifty days the waters were abated.

It's not clear what occurred after 5 months; whether the water level stopped rising or whether the flood waters were completely gone.

(Genesis 8:4) And the ark rested in the seventh month, on the seventeenth day of the month, upon the mountains of Ararat.

The ark did not come to rest on the top of a mountain; rather, upon mountains, probably foothills. Probably the wind blew the ark to one side of the flooded lake and it stopped on the side. Later it became stranded as the waters continued to recede.

(Genesis 8:5) And the waters decreased continually until the tenth month: in the tenth month, on the first day of the month, were the tops of the mountains seen.

Here we learn that the water continued to recede for 5 months; from the 5th month to the 10th month. Noah apparently was counting the days and months and one day one of month 10 he saw land for the first time.

Notice the narrative is not strictly chronological; it jumps around from topic to topic. In my view, the many interpretations which assume strictly chronological interpretations are just plain wrong.

(Genesis 8:6) And it came to pass at the end of forty days, that Noah opened the window of the ark which he had made:

It is not clear just why Noah waited 40 more days before testing for dry land.

Notice there is only one window. He had to keep it closed to keep the birds inside. Perhaps it had a finely woven mesh covering it to let some light and air in. Perhaps there were other openings for air besides the window. It must have been very dark and gloomy inside. If they built fires there would be suffocating smoke. Their only solace would be that they didn't drown in the flood.

(Genesis 8:7) And he sent forth a raven, which went forth to and fro, until the waters were dried up from off the earth.

(Genesis 8:8) Also he sent forth a dove from him, to see if the waters were abated from off the face of the ground;

(Genesis 8:9) But the dove found no rest for the sole of her foot, and she returned unto him into the ark, for the waters were on the face of the whole earth: then he put forth his hand, and took her, and pulled her in unto him into the ark.

The dove was more particular about where it would land or maybe it was not a strong a flyer as the raven. The mountains Noah saw were likely no more that 20 miles away. Perhaps the dove started the trip by finally realized it was too far and turned back. Or perhaps the dove preferred the food in the ark which took no effort at all.

(Genesis 8:10) And he stayed yet other seven days; and again he sent forth the dove out of the ark;

Noah waited 7 days before sending the dove again.

(Genesis 8:11) And the dove came in to him in the evening; and, lo, in her mouth was an olive leaf pluckt off: so Noah knew that the waters were abated from off the earth.

How could an olive tree have survived the flood underwater for nearly a year and put forth leaves. Perhaps this time there was enough dry ground that the dove ventured farther and found a tree that was not flooded at all, beyond Noah's vision, perhaps just over the top of the hill. And why would it return with a leaf? Perhaps it was building a nest. Maybe Noah stopped feeding the dove hoping for better results and maybe he didn't allow it to gather nest materials from within the ark.

(Genesis 8:12) And he stayed yet other seven days; and sent forth the dove; which returned not again unto him any more.

The dove's loyalty to Noah is over.

(Genesis 8:13) And it came to pass in the six hundredth and first year, in the first month, the first day of the month, the waters were dried up from off the earth: and Noah removed the covering of the ark, and looked, and, behold, the face of the ground was dry.

Year 601, month 1, day 1 of Noah's life

The ground is dry but they stay inside.

(Genesis 8:14) And in the second month, on the seven and twentieth day of the month, was the earth dried.

Year 601, month 1, day 20 of Noah's life.

The earth is dry.

(Genesis 8:15) And God spake unto Noah, saying,

Noah stayed in the ark until God told him to leave.

(Genesis 8:16) Go forth of the ark, thou, and thy wife, and thy sons, and thy sons' wives with thee.

(Genesis 8:17) Bring forth with thee every living thing that is with thee, of all flesh, both of fowl, and of cattle, and of every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth; that they may breed abundantly in the earth, and be fruitful, and multiply upon the earth.

When the population of a species gets too large for the available resources they die en masse.

(Genesis 8:18) And Noah went forth, and his sons, and his wife, and his sons' wives with him:

(Genesis 8:19) Every beast, every creeping thing, and every fowl, and whatsoever creepeth upon the earth, after their kinds, went forth out of the ark.

(Genesis 8:20) And Noah builded an altar unto the LORD; and took of every clean beast, and of every clean fowl, and offered burnt offerings on the altar.

Building altars was probably a common practice among both those who worshipped the true God and of others. Noah's altar is built to the true God. In worshipping God it is important that we do something to express our love and devotion to God.

Burnt offerings are totally consumed by fire, none of it is eaten.This was a huge event with animals of every clean species. Perhaps it lasted days.

(Genesis 8:21) And the LORD smelled a sweet savour; and the LORD said in his heart, I will not again curse the ground any more for man's sake; for the imagination of man's heart is evil from his youth; neither will I again smite [destroy] any more every thing living, as I have done.

Notice that God has a heart. In the spiritual realm, in the highest heaven in which God resides he has a spiritual body. All creatures have a spiritual body and a soul residing in the spiritual realm.

The effects of the ground being cursed are thorns and thistles causing sorrow.The domestication of animals began about the time of the flood. At that time the curse on the ground was lifted since it is much easier to raise livestock than to hunt.

Since the flood was caused by melting icepacks, God's promise to not destroy all life as he had just done implies there will be no more global ice ages.

This verse uses the word "every"to mean "every one of a category" not "each and every one." How many times have I heard a preacher pound his fist on the pulpit insisting that all means all. Yet there are so many verses in which all clearly doesn't mean all. In this case, the word "all" refers to those creatures and humans that were destroyed. It excludes Noah and his family.

Being confined into a small space with animals that could be domesticated probably taught Noah and his family how to domesticate these animals. After they left the ark, the practice of domestication of animals and ranching began. One of the purposes for the flood was to teach humans to domesticate animals.

(Genesis 8:22) While the earth remaineth, seedtime and harvest, and cold and heat, and summer and winter, and day and night shall not cease.

There are certain things we can depend on existing always. The earth will remain forever in the new heavens and new earthso we should expect the new heavens to have similar conditions as this current earth. In the new heavens and new earth there will be...

(Genesis 9:1) And God blessed Noah and his sons, and said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth.

I doubt this means humans can pollute the environment and exploit the natural resources, including the animals. Certainly in our modern world we are doing this on a grand scale. The word "replenish" implies sustainability.

(Genesis 9:2) And the fear of you and the dread of you shall be upon every beast of the earth, and upon every fowl of the air, upon all that moveth upon the earth, and upon all the fishes of the sea; into your hand are they delivered.

It is not surprising animals would begin to fear humans once they began to be domesticated. Certainly before this time, animals were hunted and these would fear humans.

(Genesis 9:3) Every moving thing that liveth shall be meat for you; even as the green herb have I given you all things.

Some claim this is when humans were finally allowed to eat animals, but other earlier verses refute this.

The era of animal domestication begins and humans no longer have to rely on hunting to obtain meat.

Notice the word "all" doesn't mean each and every onebut, rather, each one from the specified category. In this case, it refers to clean animals, those God allows humans to eat.

(Genesis 9:4) But flesh with the life thereof, which is the blood thereof, shall ye not eat.

They were not to eat the blood of animals because the life is in the blood. We don't usually today think that the life is in the blood but perhaps it is in some way. Certainly, having blood is a necessary ingredient in living, for animals at least, but so is oxygen. Perhaps life is in the blood because the blood transports oxygen and this is in some way a manifestation of the life-giving Holy Spirit;after all, Adam became a living soul only after God breathed the breath of life into his nostrils. Perhaps this is what keeps us alive from moment to moment; God breathes the breath of life into our nostrils and this life-giving breath goes into our lungs and into our blood where it nourishes the rest of our body. Yoga is based on the idea that there is a life energy in the breath and there just might be something to this. (I should note that I reject much of Eastern philosophy; but there may be some small grains of truth buried within it — certainly not enough to illuminate the path to eternal redemption from the wages of sin which is death.)

God institutes divine law. No eating of blood.

(Genesis 9:5) And surely your blood of your lives will I require; at the hand of every beast will I require it, and at the hand of man; at the hand of every man's brother will I require the life of man.

God institutes divine law. Killing humans is forbidden by other humans or by animals. Those who kill humans are accountable. This doesn't apply in self-defense or during a just war.

(Genesis 9:6) Whoso sheddeth man's blood, by man shall his blood be shed: for in the image of God made he man.

Capital punishment. This verse doesn't sound like it's optional.

(Genesis 9:7) And you, be ye fruitful, and multiply; bring forth abundantly in the earth, and multiply therein.

(Genesis 9:8) And God spake unto Noah, and to his sons with him, saying,

(Genesis 9:9) And I, behold, I establish my covenant with you, and with your seed after you;

God's covenant is with Noah and all those descended from Noah. Since there were many humans living before Noah's time living all over the world this implies that this covenant is only with those in the line of Noah; those of redemption history. But it appears the conditions of the covenant apply to all humans.

(Genesis 9:10) And with every living creature that is with you, of the fowl, of the cattle, and of every beast of the earth with you; from all that go out of the ark, to every beast of the earth.

Notice the 2 categories: (1) animals that were on the ark, (2) animals that were not on the ark.

(Genesis 9:11) And I will establish my covenant with you; neither shall all flesh be cut off any more by the waters of a flood; neither shall there any more be a flood to destroy the earth.

No more huge floods. I suppose this applies to the effects of global warming.

Notice the word "all" doesn't refer to each and every last one.

(Genesis 9:12) And God said, This is the token of the covenant which I make between me and you and every living creature that is with you, for perpetual generations:

(Genesis 9:13) I do set my bow [rainbow] in the cloud, and it shall be for a token of a covenant between me and the earth.

An odd choice for a sign of a covenant since rainbow had existed before the flood. Perhaps the significance is that, in seeing a rainbow, we think of the flood.

(Genesis 9:14) And it shall come to pass, when I bring a cloud over the earth, that the bow shall be seen in the cloud:

(Genesis 9:15) And I will remember my covenant, which is between me and you and every living creature of all flesh; and the waters shall no more become a flood to destroy all flesh.

(Genesis 9:16) And the bow shall be in the cloud; and I will look upon it, that I may remember the everlasting covenant between God and every living creature of all flesh that is upon the earth.

(Genesis 9:17) And God said unto Noah, This is the token of the covenant, which I have established between me and all flesh that is upon the earth.

(Genesis 9:18) And the sons of Noah, that went forth of the ark, were Shem, and Ham, and Japheth: and Ham is the father of Canaan.

(Genesis 9:19) These are the three sons of Noah: and of them was the whole earth overspread.

The descendants of the 3 sons of Noah did not migrate over the entire earth until recently. For example, there have been modern humans living in China and the Americas for tens of thousands of years, long before Adam appeared. This hints that the phrase "whole earth" refers to the local region where Noah lived.

(Genesis 9:20) And Noah began to be an husbandman [farmer], and he planted a vineyard:

Noah was a farmer before the flood. After the flood he is again a farmer. This verse may indicate he was the first to plant a vineyard. Perhaps in the ark he learned to do this with the limited soil they brought with them for this purpose, for experimenting with farming techniques while on board the ark.

(Genesis 9:21) And he drank of the wine, and was drunken; and he was uncovered within his tent.

Noah probably became drunk accidently, not realizing how strong the drink was. And his being uncovered was not a sin; in the heat and by tossing and turning in his sleep his robes were jostled.

(Genesis 9:22) And Ham, the father of Canaan, saw the nakedness of his father, and told his two brethren without.

Ham should have quietly covered up his father. But instead he publicized the event causing shame upon Noah. Perhaps there was some sort of jealousy or anger since he was the youngest son.

(Genesis 9:23) And Shem and Japheth took a garment, and laid it upon both their shoulders, and went backward, and covered the nakedness of their father; and their faces were backward, and they saw not their father's nakedness.

(Genesis 9:24) And Noah awoke from his wine, and knew what his younger son had done unto him.

Noah knew what Ham said because everyone knew; it was common knowledge.

Ham was Noah's youngest son.

(Genesis 9:25) And he said, Cursed be Canaan; a servant of servants shall he be unto his brethren.

Noah pronounced a curse upon Ham's son and his descendents. Probably these curses are merely stating what was already a fact; that Ham's bitter attitude was passed-on to his son Canaan. Since Ham's family was disenfranchised by Ham's bad behavior, this would result in his whole family tree falling out of favor. They would not enjoy the prestige of the other sons of Noah and their descendants.

(Genesis 9:26) And he said, Blessed be the LORD God of Shem; and Canaan shall be his servant.

(Genesis 9:27) God shall enlarge Japheth, and he shall dwell in the tents of Shem; and Canaan shall be his servant.

(Genesis 9:28) And Noah lived after the flood three hundred and fifty years.

(Genesis 9:29) And all the days of Noah were nine hundred and fifty years: and he died.

(Genesis 10:1) Now these are the generations of the sons of Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth: and unto them were sons born after the flood.

Notice there is no mention of China nor of the Americas.

(Genesis 10:2) The sons of Japheth; Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and Meshech, and Tiras.

(Genesis 10:3) And the sons of Gomer; Ashkenaz, and Riphath, and Togarmah.

(Genesis 10:4) And the sons of Javan; Elishah, and Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim.

(Genesis 10:5) By these were the isles of the Gentiles divided [separated] in their lands; every one after his tongue, after their families, in their nations.

Notice the emphasis has shifted from individual people to nations.

(Genesis 10:6) And the sons of Ham; Cush, and Mizraim, and Phut, and Canaan.

(Genesis 10:7) And the sons of Cush; Seba, and Havilah, and Sabtah, and Raamah, and Sabtechah: and the sons of Raamah; Sheba, and Dedan.


(Genesis 10:8) And Cush begat Nimrod: he began to be a mighty one in the earth.

The first civilization with a strong dictatorial leader.

(Genesis 10:9) He was a mighty hunter before the LORD: wherefore it is said, Even as Nimrod the mighty hunter before the LORD.

The word "hunter" is the same word used of Esauand his fondness for hunting game for food. Certainly, Esau's hunting prowess impressed Isaac and caused him to ignore God's word to Rebekahthat Esau would serve Jacob. Perhaps Nimrod attracted a band of hunters who provided food for others, gaining influence in the process. We read in the next verse he established a kingdom.

Some claim Nimrod hunted people, not animals. I can't imagine what this even means, to hunt men. I have never heard anyone refer to a warrior as if he were a hunter.

(Genesis 10:10) And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar.

Shinar is Mesopotamia.

(Genesis 10:11) Out of that land went forth Asshur, and builded Nineveh, and the city Rehoboth, and Calah,

(Genesis 10:12) And Resen between Nineveh and Calah: the same is a great city.

(Genesis 10:13) And Mizraim begat Ludim, and Anamim, and Lehabim, and Naphtuhim,

(Genesis 10:14) And Pathrusim, and Casluhim, (out of whom came Philistim [Philistines],) and Caphtorim.

(Genesis 10:15) And Canaan begat Sidon his first born, and Heth,

(Genesis 10:16) And the Jebusite, and the Amorite, and the Girgasite,

(Genesis 10:17) And the Hivite, and the Arkite, and the Sinite,

(Genesis 10:18) And the Arvadite, and the Zemarite, and the Hamathite: and afterward were the families of the Canaanites spread abroad.

(Genesis 10:19) And the border of the Canaanites was from Sidon, as thou comest to Gerar, unto Gaza; as thou goest, unto Sodom, and Gomorrah, and Admah, and Zeboim, even unto Lasha.

(Genesis 10:20) These are the sons of Ham, after their families, after their tongues, in their countries, and in their nations.

Notice the emphasis has shifted from individual people to nations.

(Genesis 10:21) Unto Shem also, the father of all the children of Eber, the brother of Japheth the elder, even to him were children born.

(Genesis 10:22) The children of Shem; Elam, and Asshur, and Arphaxad, and Lud, and Aram.

(Genesis 10:23) And the children of Aram; Uz, and Hul, and Gether, and Mash.

(Genesis 10:24) And Arphaxad begat Salah; and Salah begat Eber.

(Genesis 10:25) And unto Eber were born two sons: the name of one was Peleg; for in his days was the earth divided; and his brother's name was Joktan.

The name Peleg sounds like the Hebrew word divided. It is unknown whether his parents named him this or whether it was an adopted name after he spoke about the division that was occurring, perhaps explaining what it all meant. Various kingdoms such as Babylon and Egypt began during Peleg's lifetime.

Some young-earth creationists interpret the word "divided" as referring to a geological event; perhaps the dividing of the continents, perhaps the opening of a land bridge from Asia to North America. I reject young-earth creationism;these geological events occurred long before Peleg.

(Genesis 10:26) And Joktan begat Almodad, and Sheleph, and Hazarmaveth, and Jerah,

(Genesis 10:27) And Hadoram, and Uzal, and Diklah,

(Genesis 10:28) And Obal, and Abimael, and Sheba,

(Genesis 10:29) And Ophir, and Havilah, and Jobab: all these were the sons of Joktan.

(Genesis 10:30) And their dwelling was from Mesha, as thou goest unto Sephar a mount of the east.

(Genesis 10:31) These are the sons of Shem, after their families, after their tongues, in their lands, after their nations.

(Genesis 10:32) These are the families of the sons of Noah, after their generations, in their nations: and by these were the nations divided [separated] in the earth after the flood.

The word "divided" is a different Hebrew word than a few verses back.Here it probably refers to the settlement of the descendants of Noah over the various regions mentioned in this long section, in the Table of Nations.

Notice the emphasis has shifted from individual people to nations.

(Genesis 11:1) And the whole earth was of one language, and of one speech.

There were humans in China and the Americas long before thisspeaking different languages. This refers to the descendants of Noah who at first spoke the same language.

The phrase "the whole earth" refers to regions settled by Noah and his descendants.

(Genesis 11:2) And it came to pass, as they journeyed from the east, that they found a plain in the land of Shinar; and they dwelt there.

Babylon is west (and south) of where Noah's floodoccurred. This indicates the flood was local. The Caspian Sea is east (and north) of Mesopotamia.

(Genesis 11:3) And they said one to another, Go to, let us make brick, and burn [bake] them thoroughly. And they had brick for stone, and slime [tar, bitumen ] had they for morter.

They did not use stone because there wasn't any close enough; they used smallish mud bricks. They used tar as a cement to hold the bricks together. There are tar pits in the area and lots of mud.

(Genesis 11:4) And they said, Go to, let us build us a city and a tower, whose top may reach unto heaven; and let us make us a name, lest we be scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth.

The towers are ziggurats up to 150 feet tall, the home of the gods ministered to by priests.

This is not the first citybut it is the first civilization. Previous to this the various tribes kept dispersing; now people want to form a unified civilization perhaps encompassing the whole world. Throughout history leaders such as Alexander the Great and Hitler have dreamed of conquering the whole world into one kingdom.

(Genesis 11:5) And the LORD came down to see the city and the tower, which the children of men builded.

God is always watching and interacting with humanity. Deists deny this.

(Genesis 11:6) And the LORD said, Behold, the people is one, and they have all one language; and this they begin to do: and now nothing will be restrained from them, which they have imagined to do.

The ziggurats represent a time of institutionalized false religion, similar to the pyramids of Egypt. Perhaps God intervened in Shinar (but not in Egypt) because it would have otherwise affected redemption history since these people were descendants of Adam and Noah.

(Genesis 11:7) Go to, let us go down, and there confound [confuse] their language, that they may not understand one another's speech.

Perhaps those of Noah's line began to mingle with those not affected by the flood, those who had migrated to different parts of the earth long before Adam.God intervened by allowing the situation he had created thousands of years earlier to take its course.

(Genesis 11:8) So the LORD scattered them abroad from thence upon the face of all the earth: and they left off [stopped] to build the city.

Their grand dreams of global empire were interrupted. This dream is with us still and rears its ugly head from time to time.

(Genesis 11:9) Therefore is the name of it called Babel; because the LORD did there confound the language of all the earth: and from thence did the LORD scatter them abroad upon the face of all the earth.

Perhaps the word Babel took on this meaning after the events occurred, not the other way around. Likely the usual pattern is that events occur, then things or people are named after them. If a person has a name commemorating deeds performed as an adult, it is likely an adopted name.

(Genesis 11:10) These are the generations of Shem: Shem was an hundred years old, and begat Arphaxad two years after the flood:

Focusing on the line leading to Abraham. The account in Luke has an extra person, Cainan.

Notice the account jumps back in time. This is very common in the Bible; it is organized by topic, not by time. Certainly in the book of Genesis there is a general flow forward but this is interrupted often to focus in on particular events; after each episode the main chronology is picked up again. This kind of thing is very common in the book of Revelation; trying to force each vignette as occurring after the previous leads to the most nonsensical of interpretations.

(Genesis 11:11) And Shem lived after he begat Arphaxad five hundred years, and begat sons and daughters.

Notice the lifespans begin slowly to decrease. Perhaps science will someday explain all this. We moderns assume humans of the past lived only as long as us today but the book of Genesis disagrees. Science should take biblical claims more seriously and look for evidence of long lifespans in some humans. Perhaps long lifespans began only with Adam and his line, that the other modern humans before Adam and those not descended from Adam had short lifespans like us today.

(Genesis 11:12) And Arphaxad lived five and thirty years, and begat Salah:

(Genesis 11:13) And Arphaxad lived after he begat Salah four hundred and three years, and begat sons and daughters.

(Genesis 11:14) And Salah lived thirty years, and begat Eber:

(Genesis 11:15) And Salah lived after he begat Eber four hundred and three years, and begat sons and daughters.

(Genesis 11:16) And Eber lived four and thirty years, and begat Peleg:

(Genesis 11:17) And Eber lived after he begat Peleg four hundred and thirty years, and begat sons and daughters.

(Genesis 11:18) And Peleg lived thirty years, and begat Reu:

In Peleg's time the earth was divided.

(Genesis 11:19) And Peleg lived after he begat Reu two hundred and nine years, and begat sons and daughters.

(Genesis 11:20) And Reu lived two and thirty years, and begat Serug:

(Genesis 11:21) And Reu lived after he begat Serug two hundred and seven years, and begat sons and daughters.

(Genesis 11:22) And Serug lived thirty years, and begat Nahor:

(Genesis 11:23) And Serug lived after he begat Nahor two hundred years, and begat sons and daughters.

(Genesis 11:24) And Nahor lived nine and twenty years, and begat Terah:

(Genesis 11:25) And Nahor lived after he begat Terah an hundred and nineteen years, and begat sons and daughters.

(Genesis 11:26) And Terah lived seventy years, and begat Abram, Nahor, and Haran.

(Genesis 11:27) Now these are the generations of Terah: Terah begat Abram, Nahor, and Haran; and Haran begat Lot.

(Genesis 11:28) And Haran died before his father Terah in the land of his nativity, in Ur of the Chaldees.

Apparently Lot attached himself to his father's brother, to his uncle Abram, when his father Terah died young.

(Genesis 11:29) And Abram and Nahor took them wives: the name of Abram's wife was Sarai; and the name of Nahor's wife, Milcah, the daughter of Haran, the father of Milcah, and the father of Iscah.

(Genesis 11:30) But Sarai was barren; she had no child.

(Genesis 11:31) And Terah took Abram his son, and Lot the son of Haran his son's son, and Sarai his daughter in law, his son Abram's wife; and they went forth with them from Ur of the Chaldees, to go into the land of Canaan; and they came unto Haran, and dwelt there.

Perhaps God had appeared to Terah and told him to leave Ur.

In this verse, Haran is both a person and a place.

(Genesis 11:32) And the days of Terah were two hundred and five years: and Terah died in Haran.

God & Abraham — #1

(Genesis 12:1) Now the LORD had said unto Abram, Get thee out of thy country, and from thy kindred, and from thy father's house, unto a land that I will shew thee:

Abraham had already left Ur and now resided in Haran. Had his father Terah established a house, a tribe, in Haran which Abraham was to take charge over now that Terah had died?

No other relatives except Lot are mentioned as having left Ur with them so who are these kin referred to? Perhaps Abraham was considering going back to Ur where he would take a place of leadership among his tribe there?

(Genesis 12:2) And I will make of thee a great nation, and I will bless thee, and make thy name great; and thou shalt be a blessing:

It appears Abraham was desirous of being a leader of a tribe and God honors this.

(Genesis 12:3) And I will bless them that bless thee, and curse him that curseth thee: and in thee shall all families of the earth be blessed.

I wonder if Abraham knew this referred to an as then yet-future redeemer of the world being a descendent of his? Perhaps he merely thought the size of his clan would influence those around him.

(Genesis 12:4) So Abram departed, as the LORD had spoken unto him; and Lot went with him: and Abram was seventy and five years old when he departed out of Haran.

Most people this age probably think their life's work is behind them and are shy about starting large multi-decade projects. For someone this age, I suspect they would merely respond to God's call from year to year, not knowing when it would be over.

(Genesis 12:5) And Abram took Sarai his wife, and Lot his brother's son, and all their substance that they had gathered, and the souls that they had gotten in Haran; and they went forth to go into the land of Canaan; and into the land of Canaan they came.

The word "soul" refers to a person.

(Genesis 12:6) And Abram passed through the land unto the place of Sichem, unto the plain of Moreh. And the Canaanite was then in the land.

God & Abraham — #2

(Genesis 12:7) And the LORD appeared unto Abram, and said, Unto thy seed will I give this land: and there builded he an altar unto the LORD, who appeared unto him.

It is natural to build something, to construct something, to do something to express our love of God and as a way to worship him. This is not idolatry as long as the object of the worship is the true God and the worship is performed in faith, not as a mere ritual.

(Genesis 12:8) And he removed from thence unto a mountain on the east of Bethel, and pitched his tent, having Bethel on the west, and Hai on the east: and there he builded an altar unto the LORD, and called upon the name of the LORD.

Abraham build altars to the Lord wherever he goes.

(Genesis 12:9) And Abram journeyed, going on still toward the south.

(Genesis 12:10) And there was a famine in the land: and Abram went down into Egypt to sojourn there; for the famine was grievous in the land.

(Genesis 12:11) And it came to pass, when he was come near to enter into Egypt, that he said unto Sarai his wife, Behold now, I know that thou art a fair woman to look upon:

(Genesis 12:12) Therefore it shall come to pass, when the Egyptians shall see thee, that they shall say, This is his wife: and they will kill me, but they will save thee alive.

(Genesis 12:13) Say, I pray thee, thou art my sister: that it may be well with me for thy sake; and my soul shall live because of thee.

(Genesis 12:14) And it came to pass, that, when Abram was come into Egypt, the Egyptians beheld the woman that she was very fair.

(Genesis 12:15) The princes also of Pharaoh saw her, and commended her before Pharaoh: and the woman was taken into Pharaoh's house.

(Genesis 12:16) And he entreated Abram well for her sake: and he had sheep, and oxen, and he asses, and menservants, and maidservants, and she asses, and camels.

(Genesis 12:17) And the LORD plagued Pharaoh and his house with great plagues because of Sarai Abram's wife.

(Genesis 12:18) And Pharaoh called Abram, and said, What is this that thou hast done unto me? why didst thou not tell me that she was thy wife?

(Genesis 12:19) Why saidst thou, She is my sister? so I might have taken her to me to wife: now therefore behold thy wife, take her, and go thy way.

(Genesis 12:20) And Pharaoh commanded his men concerning him: and they sent him away, and his wife, and all that he had.

(Genesis 13:1) And Abram went up out of Egypt, he, and his wife, and all that he had, and Lot with him, into the south.

(Genesis 13:2) And Abram was very rich in cattle, in silver, and in gold.

(Genesis 13:3) And he went on his journeys from the south even to Bethel, unto the place where his tent had been at the beginning, between Bethel and Hai;

(Genesis 13:4) Unto the place of the altar, which he had made there at the first: and there Abram called on the name of the LORD.

Lot and Abram part ways

(Genesis 13:5) And Lot also, which went with Abram, had flocks, and herds, and tents.

The climate is not too severe for living outside in tents.

(Genesis 13:6) And the land was not able to bear them, that they might dwell together: for their substance was great, so that they could not dwell together.

A very telling verse for our day. There were too many people to live on the land so they had to spread out over a larger area. But what happens when there is no more area to spread out over? This is the predicament we are in today.

(Genesis 13:7) And there was a strife between the herdmen of Abram's cattle and the herdmen of Lot's cattle: and the Canaanite and the Perizzite dwelled then in the land.

Lack of resources leads to strife.

Notice the aside about what other peoples lived in the land at this time. It has nothing to do with the story of the moment.

(Genesis 13:8) And Abram said unto Lot, Let there be no strife, I pray thee, between me and thee, and between my herdmen and thy herdmen; for we be brethren.

(Genesis 13:9) Is not the whole land before thee? separate thyself, I pray thee, from me: if thou wilt take the left hand, then I will go to the right; or if thou depart to the right hand, then I will go to the left.

It was very noble for Abram to offer for Lot to choose which land he wanted. Perhaps Abram truly had no preference. Perhaps he knew that there would be strife from Lot's herdmen unless he let them choose.

(Genesis 13:10) And Lot lifted up his eyes, and beheld all the plain of Jordan, that it was well watered every where, before the LORD destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah, even as the garden of the LORD, like the land of Egypt, as thou comest unto Zoar.

Notice that ample water was key to survival just as it is today.

(Genesis 13:11) Then Lot chose him all the plain of Jordan; and Lot journeyed east: and they separated themselves the one from the other.

(Genesis 13:12) Abram dwelled in the land of Canaan, and Lot dwelled in the cities of the plain, and pitched his tent toward Sodom.

Lot moved into existing cities with existing people. You would think he would check out the neighborhood before choosing where to relocate to.

These people seem to show no regard for the others who already possess the land. They assume that they can simply move in to other people's land without the need to even discuss it with the current owners. This is the case also in the days of Joshua when the Israelites possess the land. Perhaps that is why Lot had to become so chummy with the people of Sodom as we learn about later. In order to remain at peace he had to become one of them (and probably offer up concessions.)

(Genesis 13:13) But the men of Sodom were wicked and sinners before the LORD exceedingly.

There is no evidence from this passage that Lot was aware of the wickedness of the people he was choosing to live among, nor that he was in his heart choosing to live among wicked people.

God & Abraham — #3

(Genesis 13:14) And the LORD said unto Abram, after that Lot was separated from him, Lift up now thine eyes, and look from the place where thou art northward, and southward, and eastward, and westward:

(Genesis 13:15) For all the land which thou seest, to thee will I give it, and to thy seed for ever.

(Genesis 13:16) And I will make thy seed as the dust of the earth: so that if a man can number the dust of the earth, then shall thy seed also be numbered.

(Genesis 13:17) Arise, walk through the land in the length of it and in the breadth of it; for I will give it unto thee.

(Genesis 13:18) Then Abram removed his tent, and came and dwelt in the plain of Mamre, which is in Hebron, and built there an altar unto the LORD.

(Genesis 14:1) And it came to pass in the days of Amraphel king of Shinar, Arioch king of Ellasar, Chedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of nations;

(Genesis 14:2) That these made war with Bera king of Sodom, and with Birsha king of Gomorrah, Shinab king of Admah, and Shemeber king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela, which is Zoar.

(Genesis 14:3) All these were joined together in the vale of Siddim, which is the salt sea.

(Genesis 14:4) Twelve years they served Chedorlaomer, and in the thirteenth year they rebelled.

(Genesis 14:5) And in the fourteenth year came Chedorlaomer, and the kings that were with him, and smote the Rephaims in Ashteroth Karnaim, and the Zuzims in Ham, and the Emims in Shaveh Kiriathaim,

(Genesis 14:6) And the Horites in their mount Seir, unto Elparan, which is by the wilderness.

(Genesis 14:7) And they returned, and came to Enmishpat, which is Kadesh, and smote all the country of the Amalekites, and also the Amorites, that dwelt in Hazezontamar.

(Genesis 14:8) And there went out the king of Sodom, and the king of Gomorrah, and the king of Admah, and the king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela (the same is Zoar;) and they joined battle with them in the vale of Siddim;

(Genesis 14:9) With Chedorlaomer the king of Elam, and with Tidal king of nations, and Amraphel king of Shinar, and Arioch king of Ellasar; four kings with five.

(Genesis 14:10) And the vale of Siddim was full of slimepits; and the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah fled, and fell there; and they that remained fled to the mountain.

(Genesis 14:11) And they took all the goods of Sodom and Gomorrah, and all their victuals, and went their way.

(Genesis 14:12) And they took Lot, Abram's brother's son, who dwelt in Sodom, and his goods, and departed.

(Genesis 14:13) And there came one that had escaped, and told Abram the Hebrew; for he dwelt in the plain of Mamre the Amorite, brother of Eshcol, and brother of Aner: and these were confederate with Abram.

(Genesis 14:14) And when Abram heard that his brother was taken captive, he armed his trained servants, born in his own house, three hundred and eighteen, and pursued them unto Dan.

(Genesis 14:15) And he divided himself against them, he and his servants, by night, and smote them, and pursued them unto Hobah, which is on the left hand of Damascus.

(Genesis 14:16) And he brought back all the goods, and also brought again his brother Lot, and his goods, and the women also, and the people.

(Genesis 14:17) And the king of Sodom went out to meet him after his return from the slaughter of Chedorlaomer, and of the kings that were with him, at the valley of Shaveh, which is the king's dale.

(Genesis 14:18) And Melchizedek king of Salem brought forth bread and wine: and he was the priest of the most high God.

(Genesis 14:19) And he blessed him, and said, Blessed be Abram of the most high God, possessor of heaven and earth:

(Genesis 14:20) And blessed be the most high God, which hath delivered thine enemies into thy hand. And he gave him tithes of all.

(Genesis 14:21) And the king of Sodom said unto Abram, Give me the persons, and take the goods to thyself.

(Genesis 14:22) And Abram said to the king of Sodom, I have lift up mine hand unto the LORD, the most high God, the possessor of heaven and earth,

(Genesis 14:23) That I will not take from a thread even to a shoelatchet, and that I will not take any thing that is thine, lest thou shouldest say, I have made Abram rich:

(Genesis 14:24) Save only that which the young men have eaten, and the portion of the men which went with me, Aner, Eshcol, and Mamre; let them take their portion.

God & Abraham — #4

(Genesis 15:1) After these things the word of the LORD came unto Abram in a vision, saying, Fear not, Abram: I am thy shield, and thy exceeding great reward.

(Genesis 15:2) And Abram said, LORD God, what wilt thou give me, seeing I go childless, and the steward of my house is this Eliezer of Damascus?

(Genesis 15:3) And Abram said, Behold, to me thou hast given no seed: and, lo, one born in my house is mine heir.

(Genesis 15:4) And, behold, the word of the LORD came unto him, saying, This shall not be thine heir; but he that shall come forth out of thine own bowels shall be thine heir.

(Genesis 15:5) And he brought him forth abroad, and said, Look now toward heaven, and tell the stars, if thou be able to number them: and he said unto him, So shall thy seed be.

(Genesis 15:6) And he believed in the LORD; and he counted it to him for righteousness.

(Genesis 15:7) And he said unto him, I am the LORD that brought thee out of Ur of the Chaldees, to give thee this land to inherit it.

(Genesis 15:8) And he said, LORD God, whereby shall I know that I shall inherit it?

(Genesis 15:9) And he said unto him, Take me an heifer of three years old, and a she goat of three years old, and a ram of three years old, and a turtledove, and a young pigeon.

(Genesis 15:10) And he took unto him all these, and divided them in the midst, and laid each piece one against another: but the birds divided he not.

(Genesis 15:11) And when the fowls came down upon the carcases, Abram drove them away.

(Genesis 15:12) And when the sun was going down, a deep sleep fell upon Abram; and, lo, an horror of great darkness fell upon him.

(Genesis 15:13) And he said unto Abram, Know of a surety that thy seed shall be a stranger in a land that is not theirs, and shall serve them; and they shall afflict them four hundred years;

(Genesis 15:14) And also that nation, whom they shall serve, will I judge: and afterward shall they come out with great substance.

(Genesis 15:15) And thou shalt go to thy fathers in peace; thou shalt be buried in a good old age.

(Genesis 15:16) But in the fourth generation they shall come hither again: for the iniquity of the Amorites is not yet full.

(Genesis 15:17) And it came to pass, that, when the sun went down, and it was dark, behold a smoking furnace, and a burning lamp that passed between those pieces.

(Genesis 15:18) In the same day the LORD made a covenant with Abram, saying, Unto thy seed have I given this land, from the river of Egypt unto the great river, the river Euphrates:

(Genesis 15:19) The Kenites, and the Kenizzites, and the Kadmonites,

(Genesis 15:20) And the Hittites, and the Perizzites, and the Rephaims,

(Genesis 15:21) And the Amorites, and the Canaanites, and the Girgashites, and the Jebusites.

(Genesis 16:1) Now Sarai Abram's wife bare him no children: and she had an handmaid, an Egyptian, whose name was Hagar.

(Genesis 16:2) And Sarai said unto Abram, Behold now, the LORD hath restrained me from bearing: I pray thee, go in unto my maid; it may be that I may obtain children by her. And Abram hearkened to the voice of Sarai.

(Genesis 16:3) And Sarai Abram's wife took Hagar her maid the Egyptian, after Abram had dwelt ten years in the land of Canaan, and gave her to her husband Abram to be his wife.

(Genesis 16:4) And he went in unto Hagar, and she conceived: and when she saw that she had conceived, her mistress was despised in her eyes.

(Genesis 16:5) And Sarai said unto Abram, My wrong be upon thee: I have given my maid into thy bosom; and when she saw that she had conceived, I was despised in her eyes: the LORD judge between me and thee.

(Genesis 16:6) But Abram said unto Sarai, Behold, thy maid is in thy hand; do to her as it pleaseth thee. And when Sarai dealt hardly with her, she fled from her face.

(Genesis 16:7) And the angel of the LORD found her by a fountain of water in the wilderness, by the fountain in the way to Shur.

(Genesis 16:8) And he said, Hagar, Sarai's maid, whence camest thou? and whither wilt thou go? And she said, I flee from the face of my mistress Sarai.

(Genesis 16:9) And the angel of the LORD said unto her, Return to thy mistress, and submit thyself under her hands.

(Genesis 16:10) And the angel of the LORD said unto her, I will multiply thy seed exceedingly, that it shall not be numbered for multitude.

(Genesis 16:11) And the angel of the LORD said unto her, Behold, thou art with child, and shalt bear a son, and shalt call his name Ishmael; because the LORD hath heard thy affliction.

(Genesis 16:12) And he will be a wild man; his hand will be against every man, and every man's hand against him; and he shall dwell in the presence of all his brethren.

(Genesis 16:13) And she called the name of the LORD that spake unto her, Thou God seest me: for she said, Have I also here looked after him that seeth me?

(Genesis 16:14) Wherefore the well was called Beerlahairoi; behold, it is between Kadesh and Bered.

(Genesis 16:15) And Hagar bare Abram a son: and Abram called his son's name, which Hagar bare, Ishmael.

(Genesis 16:16) And Abram was fourscore and six years old, when Hagar bare Ishmael to Abram.

God & Abraham — #5

(Genesis 17:1) And when Abram was ninety years old and nine, the LORD appeared to Abram, and said unto him, I am the Almighty God; walk before me, and be thou perfect.

(Genesis 17:2) And I will make my covenant between me and thee, and will multiply thee exceedingly.

(Genesis 17:3) And Abram fell on his face: and God talked with him, saying,

(Genesis 17:4) As for me, behold, my covenant is with thee, and thou shalt be a father of many nations.

(Genesis 17:5) Neither shall thy name any more be called Abram, but thy name shall be Abraham; for a father of many nations have I made thee.

(Genesis 17:6) And I will make thee exceeding fruitful, and I will make nations of thee, and kings shall come out of thee.

(Genesis 17:7) And I will establish my covenant between me and thee and thy seed after thee in their generations for an everlasting covenant, to be a God unto thee, and to thy seed after thee.

(Genesis 17:8) And I will give unto thee, and to thy seed after thee, the land wherein thou art a stranger, all the land of Canaan, for an everlasting possession; and I will be their God.

(Genesis 17:9) And God said unto Abraham, Thou shalt keep my covenant therefore, thou, and thy seed after thee in their generations.

(Genesis 17:10) This is my covenant, which ye shall keep, between me and you and thy seed after thee; Every man child among you shall be circumcised.

The circumcision surgery at the time of Abraham may have involved far less cutting with less pain then the modern practice. There also may have been some health benefit.

(Genesis 17:11) And ye shall circumcise the flesh of your foreskin; and it shall be a token of the covenant betwixt me and you.

(Genesis 17:12) And he that is eight days old shall be circumcised among you, every man child in your generations, he that is born in the house, or bought with money of any stranger, which is not of thy seed.

(Genesis 17:13) He that is born in thy house, and he that is bought with thy money, must needs be circumcised: and my covenant shall be in your flesh for an everlasting covenant.

(Genesis 17:14) And the uncircumcised man child whose flesh of his foreskin is not circumcised, that soul shall be cut off from his people; he hath broken my covenant.

The word "soul" here refers to a person.

(Genesis 17:15) And God said unto Abraham, As for Sarai thy wife, thou shalt not call her name Sarai, but Sarah shall her name be.

(Genesis 17:16) And I will bless her, and give thee a son also of her: yea, I will bless her, and she shall be a mother of nations; kings of people shall be of her.

(Genesis 17:17) Then Abraham fell upon his face, and laughed, and said in his heart, Shall a child be born unto him that is an hundred years old? and shall Sarah, that is ninety years old, bear?

(Genesis 17:18) And Abraham said unto God, O that Ishmael might live before thee!

(Genesis 17:19) And God said, Sarah thy wife shall bear thee a son indeed; and thou shalt call his name Isaac: and I will establish my covenant with him for an everlasting covenant, and with his seed after him.

(Genesis 17:20) And as for Ishmael, I have heard thee: Behold, I have blessed him, and will make him fruitful, and will multiply him exceedingly; twelve princes shall he beget, and I will make him a great nation.

(Genesis 17:21) But my covenant will I establish with Isaac, which Sarah shall bear unto thee at this set time in the next year.

(Genesis 17:22) And he left off talking with him, and God went up from Abraham.

(Genesis 17:23) And Abraham took Ishmael his son, and all that were born in his house, and all that were bought with his money, every male among the men of Abraham's house; and circumcised the flesh of their foreskin in the selfsame day, as God had said unto him.

(Genesis 17:24) And Abraham was ninety years old and nine, when he was circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin.

(Genesis 17:25) And Ishmael his son was thirteen years old, when he was circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin.

(Genesis 17:26) In the selfsame day was Abraham circumcised, and Ishmael his son.

(Genesis 17:27) And all the men of his house, born in the house, and bought with money of the stranger, were circumcised with him.

God & Abraham — #6

(Genesis 18:1) And the LORD appeared unto him in the plains of Mamre: and he sat in the tent door in the heat of the day;

(Genesis 18:2) And he lift up his eyes and looked, and, lo, three men stood by him: and when he saw them, he ran to meet them from the tent door, and bowed himself toward the ground,

(Genesis 18:3) And said, My LORD, if now I have found favour in thy sight, pass not away, I pray thee, from thy servant:

(Genesis 18:4) Let a little water, I pray you, be fetched, and wash your feet, and rest yourselves under the tree:

(Genesis 18:5) And I will fetch a morsel of bread, and comfort ye your hearts; after that ye shall pass on: for therefore are ye come to your servant. And they said, So do, as thou hast said.

(Genesis 18:6) And Abraham hastened into the tent unto Sarah, and said, Make ready quickly three measures of fine meal, knead it, and make cakes upon the hearth.

(Genesis 18:7) And Abraham ran unto the herd, and fetcht a calf tender and good, and gave it unto a young man; and he hasted to dress it.

(Genesis 18:8) And he took butter, and milk, and the calf which he had dressed, and set it before them; and he stood by them under the tree, and they did eat.

(Genesis 18:9) And they said unto him, Where is Sarah thy wife? And he said, Behold, in the tent.

(Genesis 18:10) And he said, I will certainly return unto thee according to the time of life; and, lo, Sarah thy wife shall have a son. And Sarah heard it in the tent door, which was behind him.

(Genesis 18:11) Now Abraham and Sarah were old and well stricken in age; and it ceased to be with Sarah after the manner of women.

(Genesis 18:12) Therefore Sarah laughed within herself, saying, After I am waxed old shall I have pleasure, my lord being old also?

(Genesis 18:13) And the LORD said unto Abraham, Wherefore did Sarah laugh, saying, Shall I of a surety bear a child, which am old?

(Genesis 18:14) Is any thing too hard for the LORD? At the time appointed I will return unto thee, according to the time of life, and Sarah shall have a son.

(Genesis 18:15) Then Sarah denied, saying, I laughed not; for she was afraid. And he said, Nay; but thou didst laugh.

(Genesis 18:16) And the men rose up from thence, and looked toward Sodom: and Abraham went with them to bring them on the way.

(Genesis 18:17) And the LORD said, Shall I hide from Abraham that thing which I do;

(Genesis 18:18) Seeing that Abraham shall surely become a great and mighty nation, and all the nations of the earth shall be blessed in him?

(Genesis 18:19) For I know him, that he will command his children and his household after him, and they shall keep the way of the LORD, to do justice and judgment; that the LORD may bring upon Abraham that which he hath spoken of him.

(Genesis 18:20) And the LORD said, Because the cry of Sodom and Gomorrah is great, and because their sin is very grievous;

(Genesis 18:21) I will go down now, and see whether they have done altogether according to the cry of it, which is come unto me; and if not, I will know.

(Genesis 18:22) And the men turned their faces from thence, and went toward Sodom: but Abraham stood yet before the LORD.

(Genesis 18:23) And Abraham drew near, and said, Wilt thou also destroy the righteous with the wicked?

(Genesis 18:24) Peradventure there be fifty righteous within the city: wilt thou also destroy and not spare the place for the fifty righteous that are therein?

(Genesis 18:25) That be far from thee to do after this manner, to slay the righteous with the wicked: and that the righteous should be as the wicked, that be far from thee: Shall not the Judge of all the earth do right?

(Genesis 18:26) And the LORD said, If I find in Sodom fifty righteous within the city, then I will spare all the place for their sakes.

(Genesis 18:27) And Abraham answered and said, Behold now, I have taken upon me to speak unto the LORD, which am but dust and ashes:

(Genesis 18:28) Peradventure there shall lack five of the fifty righteous: wilt thou destroy all the city for lack of five? And he said, If I find there forty and five, I will not destroy it.

(Genesis 18:29) And he spake unto him yet again, and said, Peradventure there shall be forty found there. And he said, I will not do it for forty's sake.

(Genesis 18:30) And he said unto him, Oh let not the LORD be angry, and I will speak: Peradventure there shall thirty be found there. And he said, I will not do it, if I find thirty there.

(Genesis 18:31) And he said, Behold now, I have taken upon me to speak unto the LORD: Peradventure there shall be twenty found there. And he said, I will not destroy it for twenty's sake.

(Genesis 18:32) And he said, Oh let not the LORD be angry, and I will speak yet but this once: Peradventure ten shall be found there. And he said, I will not destroy it for ten's sake.

(Genesis 18:33) And the LORD went his way, as soon as he had left communing with Abraham: and Abraham returned unto his place.

(Genesis 19:1) And there came two angels to Sodom at even; and Lot sat in the gate of Sodom: and Lot seeing them rose up to meet them; and he bowed himself with his face toward the ground;

(Genesis 19:2) And he said, Behold now, my lords, turn in, I pray you, into your servant's house, and tarry all night, and wash your feet, and ye shall rise up early, and go on your ways. And they said, Nay; but we will abide in the street all night.

(Genesis 19:3) And he pressed upon them greatly; and they turned in unto him, and entered into his house; and he made them a feast, and did bake unleavened bread, and they did eat.

(Genesis 19:4) But before they lay down, the men of the city, even the men of Sodom, compassed the house round, both old and young, all the people from every quarter:

(Genesis 19:5) And they called unto Lot, and said unto him, Where are the men which came in to thee this night? bring them out unto us, that we may know them.

(Genesis 19:6) And Lot went out at the door unto them, and shut the door after him,

(Genesis 19:7) And said, I pray you, brethren, do not so wickedly.

(Genesis 19:8) Behold now, I have two daughters which have not known man; let me, I pray you, bring them out unto you, and do ye to them as is good in your eyes: only unto these men do nothing; for therefore came they under the shadow of my roof.

(Genesis 19:9) And they said, Stand back. And they said again, This one fellow came in to sojourn, and he will needs be a judge: now will we deal worse with thee, than with them. And they pressed sore upon the man, even Lot, and came near to break the door.

(Genesis 19:10) But the men put forth their hand, and pulled Lot into the house to them, and shut to the door.

(Genesis 19:11) And they smote the men that were at the door of the house with blindness, both small and great: so that they wearied themselves to find the door.

(Genesis 19:12) And the men said unto Lot, Hast thou here any besides? son in law, and thy sons, and thy daughters, and whatsoever thou hast in the city, bring them out of this place:

(Genesis 19:13) For we will destroy this place, because the cry of them is waxen great before the face of the LORD; and the LORD hath sent us to destroy it.

(Genesis 19:14) And Lot went out, and spake unto his sons in law, which married his daughters, and said, Up, get you out of this place; for the LORD will destroy this city. But he seemed as one that mocked unto his sons in law.

(Genesis 19:15) And when the morning arose, then the angels hastened Lot, saying, Arise, take thy wife, and thy two daughters, which are here; lest thou be consumed in the iniquity of the city.

(Genesis 19:16) And while he lingered, the men laid hold upon his hand, and upon the hand of his wife, and upon the hand of his two daughters; the LORD being merciful unto him: and they brought him forth, and set him without the city.

(Genesis 19:17) And it came to pass, when they had brought them forth abroad, that he said, Escape for thy life; look not behind thee, neither stay thou in all the plain; escape to the mountain, lest thou be consumed.

(Genesis 19:18) And Lot said unto them, Oh, not so, my LORD:

(Genesis 19:19) Behold now, thy servant hath found grace in thy sight, and thou hast magnified thy mercy, which thou hast shewed unto me in saving my life; and I cannot escape to the mountain, lest some evil take me, and I die:

(Genesis 19:20) Behold now, this city is near to flee unto, and it is a little one: Oh, let me escape thither, (is it not a little one?) and my soul shall live.

(Genesis 19:21) And he said unto him, See, I have accepted thee concerning this thing also, that I will not overthrow this city, for the which thou hast spoken.

(Genesis 19:22) Haste thee, escape thither; for I cannot do anything till thou be come thither. Therefore the name of the city was called Zoar.

(Genesis 19:23) The sun was risen upon the earth when Lot entered into Zoar.

(Genesis 19:24) Then the LORD rained upon Sodom and upon Gomorrah brimstone and fire from the LORD out of heaven;

(Genesis 19:25) And he overthrew those cities, and all the plain, and all the inhabitants of the cities, and that which grew upon the ground.

(Genesis 19:26) But his wife looked back from behind him, and she became a pillar of salt.

(Genesis 19:27) And Abraham gat up early in the morning to the place where he stood before the LORD:

Abraham has a certain place where he worships God.

(Genesis 19:28) And he looked toward Sodom and Gomorrah, and toward all the land of the plain, and beheld, and, lo, the smoke of the country went up as the smoke of a furnace.

(Genesis 19:29) And it came to pass, when God destroyed the cities of the plain, that God remembered Abraham, and sent Lot out of the midst of the overthrow, when he overthrew the cities in the which Lot dwelt.

(Genesis 19:30) And Lot went up out of Zoar, and dwelt in the mountain, and his two daughters with him; for he feared to dwell in Zoar: and he dwelt in a cave, he and his two daughters.

(Genesis 19:31) And the firstborn said unto the younger, Our father is old, and there is not a man in the earth to come in unto us after the manner of all the earth:

(Genesis 19:32) Come, let us make our father drink wine, and we will lie with him, that we may preserve seed of our father.

(Genesis 19:33) And they made their father drink wine that night: and the firstborn went in, and lay with her father; and he perceived not when she lay down, nor when she arose.

(Genesis 19:34) And it came to pass on the morrow, that the firstborn said unto the younger, Behold, I lay yesternight with my father: let us make him drink wine this night also; and go thou in, and lie with him, that we may preserve seed of our father.

(Genesis 19:35) And they made their father drink wine that night also: and the younger arose, and lay with him; and he perceived not when she lay down, nor when she arose.

(Genesis 19:36) Thus were both the daughters of Lot with child by their father.

(Genesis 19:37) And the first born bare a son, and called his name Moab: the same is the father of the Moabites unto this day.

(Genesis 19:38) And the younger, she also bare a son, and called his name Benammi: the same is the father of the children of Ammon unto this day.

(Genesis 20:1) And Abraham journeyed from thence toward the south country, and dwelled between Kadesh and Shur, and sojourned in Gerar.

(Genesis 20:2) And Abraham said of Sarah his wife, She is my sister: and Abimelech king of Gerar sent, and took Sarah.

(Genesis 20:3) But God came to Abimelech in a dream by night, and said to him, Behold, thou art but a dead man, for the woman which thou hast taken; for she is a man's wife.

(Genesis 20:4) But Abimelech had not come near her: and he said, LORD, wilt thou slay also a righteous nation?

(Genesis 20:5) Said he not unto me, She is my sister? and she, even she herself said, He is my brother: in the integrity of my heart and innocency of my hands have I done this.

(Genesis 20:6) And God said unto him in a dream, Yea, I know that thou didst this in the integrity of thy heart; for I also withheld thee from sinning against me: therefore suffered I thee not to touch her.

(Genesis 20:7) Now therefore restore the man his wife; for he is a prophet, and he shall pray for thee, and thou shalt live: and if thou restore her not, know thou that thou shalt surely die, thou, and all that are thine.

(Genesis 20:8) Therefore Abimelech rose early in the morning, and called all his servants, and told all these things in their ears: and the men were sore afraid.

(Genesis 20:9) Then Abimelech called Abraham, and said unto him, What hast thou done unto us? and what have I offended thee, that thou hast brought on me and on my kingdom a great sin? thou hast done deeds unto me that ought not to be done.

(Genesis 20:10) And Abimelech said unto Abraham, What sawest thou, that thou hast done this thing?

(Genesis 20:11) And Abraham said, Because I thought, Surely the fear of God is not in this place; and they will slay me for my wife's sake.

(Genesis 20:12) And yet indeed she is my sister; she is the daughter of my father, but not the daughter of my mother; and she became my wife.

(Genesis 20:13) And it came to pass, when God caused me to wander from my father's house, that I said unto her, This is thy kindness which thou shalt shew unto me; at every place whither we shall come, say of me, He is my brother.

(Genesis 20:14) And Abimelech took sheep, and oxen, and menservants, and womenservants, and gave them unto Abraham, and restored him Sarah his wife.

(Genesis 20:15) And Abimelech said, Behold, my land is before thee: dwell where it pleaseth thee.

(Genesis 20:16) And unto Sarah he said, Behold, I have given thy brother a thousand pieces of silver: behold, he is to thee a covering of the eyes, unto all that are with thee, and with all other: thus she was reproved.

(Genesis 20:17) So Abraham prayed unto God: and God healed Abimelech, and his wife, and his maidservants; and they bare children.

(Genesis 20:18) For the LORD had fast closed up all the wombs of the house of Abimelech, because of Sarah Abraham's wife.

(Genesis 21:1) And the LORD visited Sarah as he had said, and the LORD did unto Sarah as he had spoken.

(Genesis 21:2) For Sarah conceived, and bare Abraham a son in his old age, at the set time of which God had spoken to him.

(Genesis 21:3) And Abraham called the name of his son that was born unto him, whom Sarah bare to him, Isaac.

(Genesis 21:4) And Abraham circumcised his son Isaac being eight days old, as God had commanded him.

(Genesis 21:5) And Abraham was an hundred years old, when his son Isaac was born unto him.

(Genesis 21:6) And Sarah said, God hath made me to laugh, so that all that hear will laugh with me.

(Genesis 21:7) And she said, Who would have said unto Abraham, that Sarah should have given children suck? for I have born him a son in his old age.

(Genesis 21:8) And the child grew, and was weaned: and Abraham made a great feast the same day that Isaac was weaned.

(Genesis 21:9) And Sarah saw the son of Hagar the Egyptian, which she had born unto Abraham, mocking.

(Genesis 21:10) Wherefore she said unto Abraham, Cast out this bondwoman and her son: for the son of this bondwoman shall not be heir with my son, even with Isaac.

(Genesis 21:11) And the thing was very grievous in Abraham's sight because of his son.

God & Abraham — #7

(Genesis 21:12) And God said unto Abraham, Let it not be grievous in thy sight because of the lad, and because of thy bondwoman; in all that Sarah hath said unto thee, hearken unto her voice; for in Isaac shall thy seed be called.

(Genesis 21:13) And also of the son of the bondwoman will I make a nation, because he is thy seed.

(Genesis 21:14) And Abraham rose up early in the morning, and took bread, and a bottle of water, and gave it unto Hagar, putting it on her shoulder, and the child, and sent her away: and she departed, and wandered in the wilderness of Beersheba.

(Genesis 21:15) And the water was spent in the bottle, and she cast the child under one of the shrubs.

(Genesis 21:16) And she went, and sat her down over against him a good way off, as it were a bow shot: for she said, Let me not see the death of the child. And she sat over against him, and lift up her voice, and wept.

(Genesis 21:17) And God heard the voice of the lad; and the angel of God called to Hagar out of heaven, and said unto her, What aileth thee, Hagar? fear not; for God hath heard the voice of the lad where he is.

(Genesis 21:18) Arise, lift up the lad, and hold him in thine hand; for I will make him a great nation.

(Genesis 21:19) And God opened her eyes, and she saw a well of water; and she went, and filled the bottle with water, and gave the lad drink.

(Genesis 21:20) And God was with the lad; and he grew, and dwelt in the wilderness, and became an archer.

(Genesis 21:21) And he dwelt in the wilderness of Paran: and his mother took him a wife out of the land of Egypt.

(Genesis 21:22) And it came to pass at that time, that Abimelech and Phichol the chief captain of his host spake unto Abraham, saying, God is with thee in all that thou doest:

(Genesis 21:23) Now therefore swear unto me here by God that thou wilt not deal falsely with me, nor with my son, nor with my son's son: but according to the kindness that I have done unto thee, thou shalt do unto me, and to the land wherein thou hast sojourned.

(Genesis 21:24) And Abraham said, I will swear.

(Genesis 21:25) And Abraham reproved Abimelech because of a well of water, which Abimelech's servants had violently taken away.

(Genesis 21:26) And Abimelech said, I wot not who hath done this thing: neither didst thou tell me, neither yet heard I of it, but to day.

(Genesis 21:27) And Abraham took sheep and oxen, and gave them unto Abimelech; and both of them made a covenant.

(Genesis 21:28) And Abraham set seven ewe lambs of the flock by themselves.

(Genesis 21:29) And Abimelech said unto Abraham, What mean these seven ewe lambs which thou hast set by themselves?

(Genesis 21:30) And he said, For these seven ewe lambs shalt thou take of my hand, that they may be a witness unto me, that I have digged this well.

(Genesis 21:31) Wherefore he called that place Beersheba; because there they sware both of them.

(Genesis 21:32) Thus they made a covenant at Beersheba: then Abimelech rose up, and Phichol the chief captain of his host, and they returned into the land of the Philistines.

(Genesis 21:33) And Abraham planted a grove in Beersheba, and called there on the name of the LORD, the everlasting God.

(Genesis 21:34) And Abraham sojourned in the Philistines' land many days.

God & Abraham — #8

(Genesis 22:1) And it came to pass after these things, that God did tempt [test] Abraham, and said unto him, Abraham: and he said, Behold, here I am.

This is not a temptation to sin, but a test of Abraham's obedience to God.

(Genesis 22:2) And he said, Take now thy son, thine only son Isaac, whom thou lovest, and get thee into the land of Moriah; and offer him there for a burnt offering upon one of the mountains which I will tell thee of.

It is clear God was asking Abraham to offer up his son Isaac as a human sacrifice. Other peoples of the time offered human sacrifices but this must have been very troubling to Abraham for 2 reasons: (1) this was the son of his old age promised by God to carry on the line of promise, and (2) human sacrifice was not a good thing.

I have a hard time understanding why God would command someone to commit a mortal sin.The flippant answer is, "God can do whatever he wants".

Some say Jesus was crucified on the same spot as Isaac was bound after carrying his wooden cross just as Isaac carried the wood. Maybe so.

(Genesis 22:3) And Abraham rose up early in the morning, and saddled his ass, and took two of his young men with him, and Isaac his son, and clave the wood for the burnt offering, and rose up, and went unto the place of which God had told him.

(Genesis 22:4) Then on the third day Abraham lifted up his eyes, and saw the place afar off.

(Genesis 22:5) And Abraham said unto his young men, Abide ye here with the ass; and I and the lad will go yonder and worship, and come again to you.

(Genesis 22:6) And Abraham took the wood of the burnt offering, and laid it upon Isaac his son; and he took the fire in his hand, and a knife; and they went both of them together.

(Genesis 22:7) And Isaac spake unto Abraham his father, and said, My father: and he said, Here am I, my son. And he said, Behold the fire and the wood: but where is the lamb for a burnt offering?

(Genesis 22:8) And Abraham said, My son, God will provide himself a lamb for a burnt offering: so they went both of them together.

(Genesis 22:9) And they came to the place which God had told him of; and Abraham built an altar there, and laid the wood in order, and bound Isaac his son, and laid him on the altar upon the wood.

(Genesis 22:10) And Abraham stretched forth his hand, and took the knife to slay his son.

God & Abraham — #9

(Genesis 22:11) And the angel of the LORD called unto him out of heaven, and said, Abraham, Abraham: and he said, Here am I.

(Genesis 22:12) And he said, Lay not thine hand upon the lad, neither do thou any thing unto him: for now I know that thou fearest God, seeing thou hast not withheld thy son, thine only son from me.

(Genesis 22:13) And Abraham lifted up his eyes, and looked, and behold behind him a ram caught in a thicket by his horns: and Abraham went and took the ram, and offered him up for a burnt offering in the stead of his son.

(Genesis 22:14) And Abraham called the name of that place Jehovahjireh: as it is said to this day, In the mount of the LORD it shall be seen.

God & Abraham — #10

(Genesis 22:15) And the angel of the LORD called unto Abraham out of heaven the second time,

Perhaps all of God's communications with Abraham were via this angel of the Lord.

(Genesis 22:16) And said, By myself have I sworn, saith the LORD, for because thou hast done this thing, and hast not withheld thy son, thine only son:

(Genesis 22:17) That in blessing I will bless thee, and in multiplying I will multiply thy seed as the stars of the heaven, and as the sand which is upon the sea shore; and thy seed shall possess the gate of his enemies;

(Genesis 22:18) And in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed; because thou hast obeyed my voice.

(Genesis 22:19) So Abraham returned unto his young men, and they rose up and went together to Beersheba; and Abraham dwelt at Beersheba.

(Genesis 22:20) And it came to pass after these things, that it was told Abraham, saying, Behold, Milcah, she hath also born children unto thy brother Nahor;

(Genesis 22:21) Huz his firstborn, and Buz his brother, and Kemuel the father of Aram,

(Genesis 22:22) And Chesed, and Hazo, and Pildash, and Jidlaph, and Bethuel.

(Genesis 22:23) And Bethuel begat Rebekah: these eight Milcah did bear to Nahor, Abraham's brother.

(Genesis 22:24) And his concubine, whose name was Reumah, she bare also Tebah, and Gaham, and Thahash, and Maachah.

(Genesis 23:1) And Sarah was an hundred and seven and twenty years old: these were the years of the life of Sarah.

(Genesis 23:2) And Sarah died in Kirjatharba; the same is Hebron in the land of Canaan: and Abraham came to mourn for Sarah, and to weep for her.

(Genesis 23:3) And Abraham stood up from before his dead, and spake unto the sons of Heth, saying,

(Genesis 23:4) I am a stranger and a sojourner with you: give me a possession of a buryingplace with you, that I may bury my dead out of my sight.

(Genesis 23:5) And the children of Heth answered Abraham, saying unto him,

(Genesis 23:6) Hear us, my lord: thou art a mighty prince among us: in the choice of our sepulchres bury thy dead; none of us shall withhold from thee his sepulchre, but that thou mayest bury thy dead.

(Genesis 23:7) And Abraham stood up, and bowed himself to the people of the land, even to the children of Heth.

(Genesis 23:8) And he communed with them, saying, If it be your mind that I should bury my dead out of my sight; hear me, and intreat for me to Ephron the son of Zohar,

(Genesis 23:9) That he may give me the cave of Machpelah, which he hath, which is in the end of his field; for as much money as it is worth he shall give it me for a possession of a buryingplace amongst you.

(Genesis 23:10) And Ephron dwelt among the children of Heth: and Ephron the Hittite answered Abraham in the audience of the children of Heth, even of all that went in at the gate of his city, saying,

(Genesis 23:11) Nay, my lord, hear me: the field give I thee, and the cave that is therein, I give it thee; in the presence of the sons of my people give I it thee: bury thy dead.

(Genesis 23:12) And Abraham bowed down himself before the people of the land.

(Genesis 23:13) And he spake unto Ephron in the audience of the people of the land, saying, But if thou wilt give it, I pray thee, hear me: I will give thee money for the field; take it of me, and I will bury my dead there.

(Genesis 23:14) And Ephron answered Abraham, saying unto him,

(Genesis 23:15) My lord, hearken unto me: the land is worth four hundred shekels of silver; what is that betwixt me and thee? bury therefore thy dead.

(Genesis 23:16) And Abraham hearkened unto Ephron; and Abraham weighed to Ephron the silver, which he had named in the audience of the sons of Heth, four hundred shekels of silver, current money with the merchant.

(Genesis 23:17) And the field of Ephron, which was in Machpelah, which was before Mamre, the field, and the cave which was therein, and all the trees that were in the field, that were in all the borders round about, were made sure

(Genesis 23:18) Unto Abraham for a possession in the presence of the children of Heth, before all that went in at the gate of his city.

(Genesis 23:19) And after this, Abraham buried Sarah his wife in the cave of the field of Machpelah before Mamre: the same is Hebron in the land of Canaan.

(Genesis 23:20) And the field, and the cave that is therein, were made sure unto Abraham for a possession of a buryingplace by the sons of Heth.

(Genesis 24:1) And Abraham was old, and well stricken in age: and the LORD had blessed Abraham in all things.

(Genesis 24:2) And Abraham said unto his eldest servant of his house, that ruled over all that he had, Put, I pray thee, thy hand under my thigh:

(Genesis 24:3) And I will make thee swear by the LORD, the God of heaven, and the God of the earth, that thou shalt not take a wife unto my son of the daughters of the Canaanites, among whom I dwell:

(Genesis 24:4) But thou shalt go unto my country, and to my kindred, and take a wife unto my son Isaac.

(Genesis 24:5) And the servant said unto him, Peradventure the woman will not be willing to follow me unto this land: must I needs bring thy son again unto the land from whence thou camest?

(Genesis 24:6) And Abraham said unto him, Beware thou that thou bring not my son thither again.

(Genesis 24:7) The LORD God of heaven, which took me from my father's house, and from the land of my kindred, and which spake unto me, and that sware unto me, saying, Unto thy seed will I give this land; he shall send his angel before thee, and thou shalt take a wife unto my son from thence.

(Genesis 24:8) And if the woman will not be willing to follow thee, then thou shalt be clear from this my oath: only bring not my son thither again.

(Genesis 24:9) And the servant put his hand under the thigh of Abraham his master, and sware to him concerning that matter.

(Genesis 24:10) And the servant took ten camels of the camels of his master, and departed; for all the goods of his master were in his hand: and he arose, and went to Mesopotamia, unto the city of Nahor.

(Genesis 24:11) And he made his camels to kneel down without the city by a well of water at the time of the evening, even the time that women go out to draw water.

(Genesis 24:12) And he said, O LORD God of my master Abraham, I pray thee, send me good speed this day, and shew kindness unto my master Abraham.

(Genesis 24:13) Behold, I stand here by the well of water; and the daughters of the men of the city come out to draw water:

(Genesis 24:14) And let it come to pass, that the damsel to whom I shall say, Let down thy pitcher, I pray thee, that I may drink; and she shall say, Drink, and I will give thy camels drink also: let the same be she that thou hast appointed for thy servant Isaac; and thereby shall I know that thou hast shewed kindness unto my master.

(Genesis 24:15) And it came to pass, before he had done speaking, that, behold, Rebekah came out, who was born to Bethuel, son of Milcah, the wife of Nahor, Abraham's brother, with her pitcher upon her shoulder.

(Genesis 24:16) And the damsel was very fair to look upon, a virgin, neither had any man known her: and she went down to the well, and filled her pitcher, and came up.

(Genesis 24:17) And the servant ran to meet her, and said, Let me, I pray thee, drink a little water of thy pitcher.

(Genesis 24:18) And she said, Drink, my lord: and she hasted, and let down her pitcher upon her hand, and gave him drink.

(Genesis 24:19) And when she had done giving him drink, she said, I will draw water for thy camels also, until they have done drinking.

(Genesis 24:20) And she hasted, and emptied her pitcher into the trough, and ran again unto the well to draw water, and drew for all his camels.

(Genesis 24:21) And the man wondering at her held his peace, to wit whether the LORD had made his journey prosperous or not.

(Genesis 24:22) And it came to pass, as the camels had done drinking, that the man took a golden earring of half a shekel weight, and two bracelets for her hands of ten shekels weight of gold;

(Genesis 24:23) And said, Whose daughter art thou? tell me, I pray thee: is there room in thy father's house for us to lodge in?

(Genesis 24:24) And she said unto him, I am the daughter of Bethuel the son of Milcah, which she bare unto Nahor.

(Genesis 24:25) She said moreover unto him, We have both straw and provender enough, and room to lodge in.

(Genesis 24:26) And the man bowed down his head, and worshipped the LORD.

(Genesis 24:27) And he said, Blessed be the LORD God of my master Abraham, who hath not left destitute my master of his mercy and his truth: I being in the way, the LORD led me to the house of my master's brethren.

(Genesis 24:28) And the damsel ran, and told them of her mother's house these things.

(Genesis 24:29) And Rebekah had a brother, and his name was Laban: and Laban ran out unto the man, unto the well.

(Genesis 24:30) And it came to pass, when he saw the earring and bracelets upon his sister's hands, and when he heard the words of Rebekah his sister, saying, Thus spake the man unto me; that he came unto the man; and, behold, he stood by the camels at the well.

(Genesis 24:31) And he said, Come in, thou blessed of the LORD; wherefore standest thou without? for I have prepared the house, and room for the camels.

(Genesis 24:32) And the man came into the house: and he ungirded his camels, and gave straw and provender for the camels, and water to wash his feet, and the men's feet that were with him.

(Genesis 24:33) And there was set meat before him to eat: but he said, I will not eat, until I have told mine errand. And he said, Speak on.

(Genesis 24:34) And he said, I am Abraham's servant.

(Genesis 24:35) And the LORD hath blessed my master greatly; and he is become great: and he hath given him flocks, and herds, and silver, and gold, and menservants, and maidservants, and camels, and asses.

(Genesis 24:36) And Sarah my master's wife bare a son to my master when she was old: and unto him hath he given all that he hath.

(Genesis 24:37) And my master made me swear, saying, Thou shalt not take a wife to my son of the daughters of the Canaanites, in whose land I dwell:

(Genesis 24:38) But thou shalt go unto my father's house, and to my kindred, and take a wife unto my son.

(Genesis 24:39) And I said unto my master, Peradventure the woman will not follow me.

(Genesis 24:40) And he said unto me, The LORD, before whom I walk, will send his angel with thee, and prosper thy way; and thou shalt take a wife for my son of my kindred, and of my father's house:

(Genesis 24:41) Then shalt thou be clear from this my oath, when thou comest to my kindred; and if they give not thee one, thou shalt be clear from my oath.

(Genesis 24:42) And I came this day unto the well, and said, O LORD God of my master Abraham, if now thou do prosper my way which I go:

(Genesis 24:43) Behold, I stand by the well of water; and it shall come to pass, that when the virgin cometh forth to draw water, and I say to her, Give me, I pray thee, a little water of thy pitcher to drink;

(Genesis 24:44) And she say to me, Both drink thou, and I will also draw for thy camels: let the same be the woman whom the LORD hath appointed out for my master's son.

(Genesis 24:45) And before I had done speaking in mine heart, behold, Rebekah came forth with her pitcher on her shoulder; and she went down unto the well, and drew water: and I said unto her, Let me drink, I pray thee.

(Genesis 24:46) And she made haste, and let down her pitcher from her shoulder, and said, Drink, and I will give thy camels drink also: so I drank, and she made the camels drink also.

(Genesis 24:47) And I asked her, and said, Whose daughter art thou? And she said, The daughter of Bethuel, Nahor's son, whom Milcah bare unto him: and I put the earring upon her face, and the bracelets upon her hands.

(Genesis 24:48) And I bowed down my head, and worshipped the LORD, and blessed the LORD God of my master Abraham, which had led me in the right way to take my master's brother's daughter unto his son.

(Genesis 24:49) And now if ye will deal kindly and truly with my master, tell me: and if not, tell me; that I may turn to the right hand, or to the left.

(Genesis 24:50) Then Laban and Bethuel answered and said, The thing proceedeth from the LORD: we cannot speak unto thee bad or good.

(Genesis 24:51) Behold, Rebekah is before thee, take her, and go, and let her be thy master's son's wife, as the LORD hath spoken.

(Genesis 24:52) And it came to pass, that, when Abraham's servant heard their words, he worshipped the LORD, bowing himself to the earth.

(Genesis 24:53) And the servant brought forth jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment, and gave them to Rebekah: he gave also to her brother and to her mother precious things.

(Genesis 24:54) And they did eat and drink, he and the men that were with him, and tarried all night; and they rose up in the morning, and he said, Send me away unto my master.

(Genesis 24:55) And her brother and her mother said, Let the damsel abide with us a few days, at the least ten; after that she shall go.

(Genesis 24:56) And he said unto them, Hinder me not, seeing the LORD hath prospered my way; send me away that I may go to my master.

(Genesis 24:57) And they said, We will call the damsel, and inquire at her mouth.

(Genesis 24:58) And they called Rebekah, and said unto her, Wilt thou go with this man? And she said, I will go.

(Genesis 24:59) And they sent away Rebekah their sister, and her nurse, and Abraham's servant, and his men.

(Genesis 24:60) And they blessed Rebekah, and said unto her, Thou art our sister, be thou the mother of thousands of millions, and let thy seed possess the gate of those which hate them.

(Genesis 24:61) And Rebekah arose, and her damsels, and they rode upon the camels, and followed the man: and the servant took Rebekah, and went his way.

(Genesis 24:62) And Isaac came from the way of the well Lahairoi; for he dwelt in the south country.

(Genesis 24:63) And Isaac went out to meditate in the field at the eventide: and he lifted up his eyes, and saw, and, behold, the camels were coming.

(Genesis 24:64) And Rebekah lifted up her eyes, and when she saw Isaac, she lighted off the camel.

(Genesis 24:65) For she had said unto the servant, What man is this that walketh in the field to meet us? And the servant had said, It is my master: therefore she took a vail, and covered herself.

(Genesis 24:66) And the servant told Isaac all things that he had done.

(Genesis 24:67) And Isaac brought her into his mother Sarah's tent, and took Rebekah, and she became his wife; and he loved her: and Isaac was comforted after his mother's death.

(Genesis 25:1) Then again Abraham took a wife, and her name was Keturah.

(Genesis 25:2) And she bare him Zimran, and Jokshan, and Medan, and Midian, and Ishbak, and Shuah.

(Genesis 25:3) And Jokshan begat Sheba, and Dedan. And the sons of Dedan were Asshurim, and Letushim, and Leummim.

(Genesis 25:4) And the sons of Midian; Ephah, and Epher, and Hanoch, and Abidah, and Eldaah. All these were the children of Keturah.

(Genesis 25:5) And Abraham gave all that he had unto Isaac.

(Genesis 25:6) But unto the sons of the concubines, which Abraham had, Abraham gave gifts, and sent them away from Isaac his son, while he yet lived, eastward, unto the east country.

(Genesis 25:7) And these are the days of the years of Abraham's life which he lived, an hundred threescore and fifteen years.

(Genesis 25:8) Then Abraham gave up the ghost, and died in a good old age, an old man, and full of years; and was gathered to his people.

(Genesis 25:9) And his sons Isaac and Ishmael buried him in the cave of Machpelah, in the field of Ephron the son of Zohar the Hittite, which is before Mamre;

(Genesis 25:10) The field which Abraham purchased of the sons of Heth: there was Abraham buried, and Sarah his wife.

(Genesis 25:11) And it came to pass after the death of Abraham, that God blessed his son Isaac; and Isaac dwelt by the well Lahairoi.

(Genesis 25:12) Now these are the generations of Ishmael, Abraham's son, whom Hagar the Egyptian, Sarah's handmaid, bare unto Abraham:

(Genesis 25:13) And these are the names of the sons of Ishmael, by their names, according to their generations: the firstborn of Ishmael, Nebajoth; and Kedar, and Adbeel, and Mibsam,

(Genesis 25:14) And Mishma, and Dumah, and Massa,

(Genesis 25:15) Hadar, and Tema, Jetur, Naphish, and Kedemah:

(Genesis 25:16) These are the sons of Ishmael, and these are their names, by their towns, and by their castles; twelve princes according to their nations.

(Genesis 25:17) And these are the years of the life of Ishmael, an hundred and thirty and seven years: and he gave up the ghost and died; and was gathered unto his people.

(Genesis 25:18) And they dwelt from Havilah unto Shur, that is before Egypt, as thou goest toward Assyria: and he died in the presence of all his brethren.

(Genesis 25:19) And these are the generations of Isaac, Abraham's son: Abraham begat Isaac:

(Genesis 25:20) And Isaac was forty years old when he took Rebekah to wife, the daughter of Bethuel the Syrian of Padanaram, the sister to Laban the Syrian.

(Genesis 25:21) And Isaac intreated the LORD for his wife, because she was barren: and the LORD was intreated of him, and Rebekah his wife conceived.

(Genesis 25:22) And the children struggled together within her; and she said, If it be so, why am I thus? And she went to inquire of the LORD.

(Genesis 25:23) And the LORD said unto her, Two nations are in thy womb, and two manner of people shall be separated from thy bowels; and the one people shall be stronger than the other people; and the elder shall serve the younger.

(Genesis 25:24) And when her days to be delivered were fulfilled, behold, there were twins in her womb.

(Genesis 25:25) And the first came out red, all over like an hairy garment; and they called his name Esau.

(Genesis 25:26) And after that came his brother out, and his hand took hold on Esau's heel; and his name was called Jacob: and Isaac was threescore years old when she bare them.

(Genesis 25:27) And the boys grew: and Esau was a cunning hunter, a man of the field; and Jacob was a plain man, dwelling in tents.

(Genesis 25:28) And Isaac loved Esau, because he did eat of his venison: but Rebekah loved Jacob.

I suppose it is natural that people will prefer spending time with others having similar interests. Isaac and Esau were both hunters, while Jacob was a farmer and husbandman, tending the crops, flocks, and herds, and performing chores around the tents. This seems like a rather superficial reason for Isaac to prefer one son over the other; parents should be careful not to show favoritism with their children.

Rebekah loved Jacob, probably for various reasons including the fact that they probably spent a lot of time together working. It doesn't say that Rebekah disliked Esau; she was probably closer to Jacob, that's all. Anyway, this parental favoritism plays a role in salvation history: first because Isaac disobeyed God's command and, second because Rebekah deceivedIsaac into giving the blessing to Jacob (and obeying God's command in the process.)

(Genesis 25:29) And Jacob sod [cooked] pottage [stew]: and Esau came from the field, and he was faint:

(Genesis 25:30) And Esau said to Jacob, Feed me, I pray thee, with that same red pottage [stew]; for I am faint: therefore was his name called Edom.

(Genesis 25:31) And Jacob said, Sell me this day thy birthright.

(Genesis 25:32) And Esau said, Behold, I am at the point to die: and what profit shall this birthright do to me?

(Genesis 25:33) And Jacob said, Swear to me this day; and he sware unto him: and he sold his birthright unto Jacob.

(Genesis 25:34) Then Jacob gave Esau bread and pottage [stew] of lentiles; and he did eat and drink, and rose up, and went his way: thus Esau despised his birthright.

(Genesis 26:1) And there was a famine in the land, beside the first famine that was in the days of Abraham. And Isaac went unto Abimelech king of the Philistines unto Gerar.

(Genesis 26:2) And the LORD appeared unto him, and said, Go not down into Egypt; dwell in the land which I shall tell thee of:

(Genesis 26:3) Sojourn in this land, and I will be with thee, and will bless thee; for unto thee, and unto thy seed, I will give all these countries, and I will perform the oath which I sware unto Abraham thy father;

(Genesis 26:4) And I will make thy seed to multiply as the stars of heaven, and will give unto thy seed all these countries; and in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed;

(Genesis 26:5) Because that Abraham obeyed my voice, and kept my charge, my commandments, my statutes, and my laws.

(Genesis 26:6) And Isaac dwelt in Gerar:

(Genesis 26:7) And the men of the place asked him of his wife; and he said, She is my sister: for he feared to say, She is my wife; lest, said he, the men of the place should kill me for Rebekah; because she was fair to look upon.

(Genesis 26:8) And it came to pass, when he had been there a long time, that Abimelech king of the Philistines looked out at a window, and saw, and, behold, Isaac was sporting with Rebekah his wife.

(Genesis 26:9) And Abimelech called Isaac, and said, Behold, of a surety she is thy wife: and how saidst thou, She is my sister? And Isaac said unto him, Because I said, Lest I die for her.

(Genesis 26:10) And Abimelech said, What is this thou hast done unto us? one of the people might lightly have lien with thy wife, and thou shouldest have brought guiltiness upon us.

(Genesis 26:11) And Abimelech charged all his people, saying, He that toucheth this man or his wife shall surely be put to death.

(Genesis 26:12) Then Isaac sowed in that land, and received in the same year an hundredfold: and the LORD blessed him.

(Genesis 26:13) And the man waxed great, and went forward, and grew until he became very great:

(Genesis 26:14) For he had possession of flocks, and possession of herds, and great store of servants: and the Philistines envied him.

(Genesis 26:15) For all the wells which his father's servants had digged in the days of Abraham his father, the Philistines had stopped them, and filled them with earth.

(Genesis 26:16) And Abimelech said unto Isaac, Go from us; for thou art much mightier than we.

(Genesis 26:17) And Isaac departed thence, and pitched his tent in the valley of Gerar, and dwelt there.

(Genesis 26:18) And Isaac digged again the wells of water, which they had digged in the days of Abraham his father; for the Philistines had stopped them after the death of Abraham: and he called their names after the names by which his father had called them.

(Genesis 26:19) And Isaac's servants digged in the valley, and found there a well of springing water.

(Genesis 26:20) And the herdmen of Gerar did strive with Isaac's herdmen, saying, The water is ours: and he called the name of the well Esek; because they strove with him.

(Genesis 26:21) And they digged another well, and strove for that also: and he called the name of it Sitnah.

(Genesis 26:22) And he removed from thence, and digged another well; and for that they strove not: and he called the name of it Rehoboth; and he said, For now the LORD hath made room for us, and we shall be fruitful in the land.

(Genesis 26:23) And he went up from thence to Beersheba.

(Genesis 26:24) And the LORD appeared unto him the same night, and said, I am the God of Abraham thy father: fear not, for I am with thee, and will bless thee, and multiply thy seed for my servant Abraham's sake.

(Genesis 26:25) And he builded an altar there, and called upon the name of the LORD, and pitched his tent there: and there Isaac's servants digged a well.

(Genesis 26:26) Then Abimelech went to him from Gerar, and Ahuzzath one of his friends, and Phichol the chief captain of his army.

(Genesis 26:27) And Isaac said unto them, Wherefore come ye to me, seeing ye hate me, and have sent me away from you?

(Genesis 26:28) And they said, We saw certainly that the LORD was with thee: and we said, Let there be now an oath betwixt us, even betwixt us and thee, and let us make a covenant with thee;

(Genesis 26:29) That thou wilt do us no hurt, as we have not touched thee, and as we have done unto thee nothing but good, and have sent thee away in peace: thou art now the blessed of the LORD.

(Genesis 26:30) And he made them a feast, and they did eat and drink.

(Genesis 26:31) And they rose up betimes in the morning, and sware one to another: and Isaac sent them away, and they departed from him in peace.

(Genesis 26:32) And it came to pass the same day, that Isaac's servants came, and told him concerning the well which they had digged, and said unto him, We have found water.

(Genesis 26:33) And he called it Shebah: therefore the name of the city is Beersheba unto this day.

(Genesis 26:34) And Esau was forty years old when he took to wife Judith the daughter of Beeri the Hittite, and Bashemath the daughter of Elon the Hittite:

(Genesis 26:35) Which were a grief of mind unto Isaac and to Rebekah.

(Genesis 27:1) And it came to pass, that when Isaac was old, and his eyes were dim, so that he could not see, he called Esau his eldest son, and said unto him, My son: and he said unto him, Behold, here am I.

(Genesis 27:2) And he said, Behold now, I am old, I know not the day of my death:

(Genesis 27:3) Now therefore take, I pray thee, thy weapons, thy quiver and thy bow, and go out to the field, and take me some venison;

(Genesis 27:4) And make me savoury meat, such as I love, and bring it to me, that I may eat; that my soul may bless thee before I die.

(Genesis 27:5) And Rebekah heard when Isaac spake to Esau his son. And Esau went to the field to hunt for venison, and to bring it.

(Genesis 27:6) And Rebekah spake unto Jacob her son, saying, Behold, I heard thy father speak unto Esau thy brother, saying,

(Genesis 27:7) Bring me venison, and make me savoury meat, that I may eat, and bless thee before the LORD before my death.

(Genesis 27:8) Now therefore, my son, obey my voice according to that which I command thee.

(Genesis 27:9) Go now to the flock, and fetch me from thence two good kids of the goats; and I will make them savoury meat for thy father, such as he loveth:

(Genesis 27:10) And thou shalt bring it to thy father, that he may eat, and that he may bless thee before his death.

(Genesis 27:11) And Jacob said to Rebekah his mother, Behold, Esau my brother is a hairy man, and I am a smooth man:

(Genesis 27:12) My father peradventure will feel me, and I shall seem to him as a deceiver; and I shall bring a curse upon me, and not a blessing.

(Genesis 27:13) And his mother said unto him, Upon me be thy curse, my son: only obey my voice, and go fetch me them.

(Genesis 27:14) And he went, and fetched, and brought them to his mother: and his mother made savoury meat, such as his father loved.

(Genesis 27:15) And Rebekah took goodly raiment of her eldest son Esau, which were with her in the house, and put them upon Jacob her younger son:

(Genesis 27:16) And she put the skins of the kids of the goats upon his hands, and upon the smooth of his neck:

(Genesis 27:17) And she gave the savoury meat and the bread, which she had prepared, into the hand of her son Jacob.

(Genesis 27:18) And he came unto his father, and said, My father: and he said, Here am I; who art thou, my son?

(Genesis 27:19) And Jacob said unto his father, I am Esau thy first born; I have done according as thou badest me: arise, I pray thee, sit and eat of my venison, that thy soul may bless me.

(Genesis 27:20) And Isaac said unto his son, How is it that thou hast found it so quickly, my son? And he said, Because the LORD thy God brought it to me.

(Genesis 27:21) And Isaac said unto Jacob, Come near, I pray thee, that I may feel thee, my son, whether thou be my very son Esau or not.

(Genesis 27:22) And Jacob went near unto Isaac his father; and he felt him, and said, The voice is Jacob's voice, but the hands are the hands of Esau.

(Genesis 27:23) And he discerned him not, because his hands were hairy, as his brother Esau's hands: so he blessed him.

(Genesis 27:24) And he said, Art thou my very son Esau? And he said, I am.

(Genesis 27:25) And he said, Bring it near to me, and I will eat of my son's venison, that my soul may bless thee. And he brought it near to him, and he did eat: and he brought him wine, and he drank.

(Genesis 27:26) And his father Isaac said unto him, Come near now, and kiss me, my son.

(Genesis 27:27) And he came near, and kissed him: and he smelled the smell of his raiment, and blessed him, and said, See, the smell of my son is as the smell of a field which the LORD hath blessed:

(Genesis 27:28) Therefore God give thee of the dew of heaven, and the fatness of the earth, and plenty of corn and wine:

(Genesis 27:29) Let people serve thee, and nations bow down to thee: be lord over thy brethren, and let thy mother's sons bow down to thee: cursed be every one that curseth thee, and blessed be he that blesseth thee.

(Genesis 27:30) And it came to pass, as soon as Isaac had made an end of blessing Jacob, and Jacob was yet scarce gone out from the presence of Isaac his father, that Esau his brother came in from his hunting.

(Genesis 27:31) And he also had made savoury meat, and brought it unto his father, and said unto his father, Let my father arise, and eat of his son's venison, that thy soul may bless me.

(Genesis 27:32) And Isaac his father said unto him, Who art thou? And he said, I am thy son, thy firstborn Esau.

(Genesis 27:33) And Isaac trembled very exceedingly, and said, Who? where is he that hath taken venison, and brought it me, and I have eaten of all before thou camest, and have blessed him? yea, and he shall be blessed.

(Genesis 27:34) And when Esau heard the words of his father, he cried with a great and exceeding bitter cry, and said unto his father, Bless me, even me also, O my father.

(Genesis 27:35) And he said, Thy brother came with subtilty, and hath taken away thy blessing.

(Genesis 27:36) And he said, Is not he rightly named Jacob? for he hath supplanted me these two times: he took away my birthright; and, behold, now he hath taken away my blessing. And he said, Hast thou not reserved a blessing for me?

(Genesis 27:37) And Isaac answered and said unto Esau, Behold, I have made him thy lord, and all his brethren have I given to him for servants; and with corn and wine have I sustained him: and what shall I do now unto thee, my son?

(Genesis 27:38) And Esau said unto his father, Hast thou but one blessing, my father? bless me, even me also, O my father. And Esau lifted up his voice, and wept.

(Genesis 27:39) And Isaac his father answered and said unto him, Behold, thy dwelling shall be the fatness of the earth, and of the dew of heaven from above;

(Genesis 27:40) And by thy sword shalt thou live, and shalt serve thy brother; and it shall come to pass when thou shalt have the dominion, that thou shalt break his yoke from off thy neck.

(Genesis 27:41) And Esau hated Jacob because of the blessing wherewith his father blessed him: and Esau said in his heart, The days of mourning for my father are at hand; then will I slay my brother Jacob.

(Genesis 27:42) And these words of Esau her elder son were told to Rebekah: and she sent and called Jacob her younger son, and said unto him, Behold, thy brother Esau, as touching thee, doth comfort himself, purposing to kill thee.

(Genesis 27:43) Now therefore, my son, obey my voice; and arise, flee thou to Laban my brother to Haran;

(Genesis 27:44) And tarry with him a few days, until thy brother's fury turn away;

(Genesis 27:45) Until thy brother's anger turn away from thee, and he forget that which thou hast done to him: then I will send, and fetch thee from thence: why should I be deprived also of you both in one day?

(Genesis 27:46) And Rebekah said to Isaac, I am weary of my life because of the daughters of Heth: if Jacob take a wife of the daughters of Heth, such as these which are of the daughters of the land, what good shall my life do me?

(Genesis 28:1) And Isaac called Jacob, and blessed him, and charged him, and said unto him, Thou shalt not take a wife of the daughters of Canaan.

(Genesis 28:2) Arise, go to Padanaram, to the house of Bethuel thy mother's father; and take thee a wife from thence of the daughters of Laban thy mother's brother.

(Genesis 28:3) And God Almighty bless thee, and make thee fruitful, and multiply thee, that thou mayest be a multitude of people;

(Genesis 28:4) And give thee the blessing of Abraham, to thee, and to thy seed with thee; that thou mayest inherit the land wherein thou art a stranger, which God gave unto Abraham.

(Genesis 28:5) And Isaac sent away Jacob: and he went to Padanaram unto Laban, son of Bethuel the Syrian, the brother of Rebekah, Jacob's and Esau's mother.

(Genesis 28:6) When Esau saw that Isaac had blessed Jacob, and sent him away to Padanaram, to take him a wife from thence; and that as he blessed him he gave him a charge, saying, Thou shalt not take a wife of the daughters of Canaan;

(Genesis 28:7) And that Jacob obeyed his father and his mother, and was gone to Padanaram;

(Genesis 28:8) And Esau seeing that the daughters of Canaan pleased not Isaac his father;

(Genesis 28:9) Then went Esau unto Ishmael, and took unto the wives which he had Mahalath the daughter of Ishmael Abraham's son, the sister of Nebajoth, to be his wife.

(Genesis 28:10) And Jacob went out from Beersheba, and went toward Haran.

(Genesis 28:11) And he lighted upon a certain place, and tarried there all night, because the sun was set; and he took of the stones of that place, and put them for his pillows, and lay down in that place to sleep.

(Genesis 28:12) And he dreamed, and behold a ladder set up on the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven: and behold the angels of God ascending and descending on it.

(Genesis 28:13) And, behold, the LORD stood above it, and said, I am the LORD God of Abraham thy father, and the God of Isaac: the land whereon thou liest, to thee will I give it, and to thy seed;

(Genesis 28:14) And thy seed shall be as the dust of the earth, and thou shalt spread abroad to the west, and to the east, and to the north, and to the south: and in thee and in thy seed shall all the families of the earth be blessed.

(Genesis 28:15) And, behold, I am with thee, and will keep thee in all places whither thou goest, and will bring thee again into this land; for I will not leave thee, until I have done that which I have spoken to thee of.

(Genesis 28:16) And Jacob awaked out of his sleep, and he said, Surely the LORD is in this place; and I knew it not.

(Genesis 28:17) And he was afraid, and said, How dreadful is this place! this is none other but the house of God, and this is the gate of heaven.

(Genesis 28:18) And Jacob rose up early in the morning, and took the stone that he had put for his pillows, and set it up for a pillar, and poured oil upon the top of it.

(Genesis 28:19) And he called the name of that place Bethel: but the name of that city was called Luz at the first.

(Genesis 28:20) And Jacob vowed a vow, saying, If God will be with me, and will keep me in this way that I go, and will give me bread to eat, and raiment to put on,

(Genesis 28:21) So that I come again to my father's house in peace; then shall the LORD be my God:

(Genesis 28:22) And this stone, which I have set for a pillar, shall be God's house: and of all that thou shalt give me I will surely give the tenth unto thee.

(Genesis 29:1) Then Jacob went on his journey, and came into the land of the people of the east.

(Genesis 29:2) And he looked, and behold a well in the field, and, lo, there were three flocks of sheep lying by it; for out of that well they watered the flocks: and a great stone was upon the well's mouth.

(Genesis 29:3) And thither were all the flocks gathered: and they rolled the stone from the well's mouth, and watered the sheep, and put the stone again upon the well's mouth in his place.

(Genesis 29:4) And Jacob said unto them, My brethren, whence be ye? And they said, Of Haran are we.

(Genesis 29:5) And he said unto them, Know ye Laban the son of Nahor? And they said, We know him.

(Genesis 29:6) And he said unto them, Is he well? And they said, He is well: and, behold, Rachel his daughter cometh with the sheep.

(Genesis 29:7) And he said, Lo, it is yet high day, neither is it time that the cattle should be gathered together: water ye the sheep, and go and feed them.

(Genesis 29:8) And they said, We cannot, until all the flocks be gathered together, and till they roll the stone from the well's mouth; then we water the sheep.

(Genesis 29:9) And while he yet spake with them, Rachel came with her father's sheep: for she kept them.

(Genesis 29:10) And it came to pass, when Jacob saw Rachel the daughter of Laban his mother's brother, and the sheep of Laban his mother's brother, that Jacob went near, and rolled the stone from the well's mouth, and watered the flock of Laban his mother's brother.

(Genesis 29:11) And Jacob kissed Rachel, and lifted up his voice, and wept.

(Genesis 29:12) And Jacob told Rachel that he was her father's brother, and that he was Rebekah's son: and she ran and told her father.

(Genesis 29:13) And it came to pass, when Laban heard the tidings of Jacob his sister's son, that he ran to meet him, and embraced him, and kissed him, and brought him to his house. And he told Laban all these things.

(Genesis 29:14) And Laban said to him, Surely thou art my bone and my flesh. And he abode with him the space of a month.

(Genesis 29:15) And Laban said unto Jacob, Because thou art my brother, shouldest thou therefore serve me for nought? tell me, what shall thy wages be?

(Genesis 29:16) And Laban had two daughters: the name of the elder was Leah, and the name of the younger was Rachel.

(Genesis 29:17) Leah was tender eyed; but Rachel was beautiful and well favoured.

(Genesis 29:18) And Jacob loved Rachel; and said, I will serve thee seven years for Rachel thy younger daughter.

(Genesis 29:19) And Laban said, It is better that I give her to thee, than that I should give her to another man: abide with me.

(Genesis 29:20) And Jacob served seven years for Rachel; and they seemed unto him but a few days, for the love he had to her.

(Genesis 29:21) And Jacob said unto Laban, Give me my wife, for my days are fulfilled, that I may go in unto her.

(Genesis 29:22) And Laban gathered together all the men of the place, and made a feast.

(Genesis 29:23) And it came to pass in the evening, that he took Leah his daughter, and brought her to him; and he went in unto her.

(Genesis 29:24) And Laban gave unto his daughter Leah Zilpah his maid for an handmaid.

(Genesis 29:25) And it came to pass, that in the morning, behold, it was Leah: and he said to Laban, What is this thou hast done unto me? did not I serve with thee for Rachel? wherefore then hast thou beguiled me?

(Genesis 29:26) And Laban said, It must not be so done in our country, to give the younger before the firstborn.

(Genesis 29:27) Fulfil her week, and we will give thee this also for the service which thou shalt serve with me yet seven other years.

(Genesis 29:28) And Jacob did so, and fulfilled her week: and he gave him Rachel his daughter to wife also.

(Genesis 29:29) And Laban gave to Rachel his daughter Bilhah his handmaid to be her maid.

(Genesis 29:30) And he went in also unto Rachel, and he loved also Rachel more than Leah, and served with him yet seven other years.

(Genesis 29:31) And when the LORD saw that Leah was hated, he opened her womb: but Rachel was barren.

(Genesis 29:32) And Leah conceived, and bare a son, and she called his name Reuben: for she said, Surely the LORD hath looked upon my affliction; now therefore my husband will love me.

(Genesis 29:33) And she conceived again, and bare a son; and said, Because the LORD hath heard that I was hated, he hath therefore given me this son also: and she called his name Simeon.

(Genesis 29:34) And she conceived again, and bare a son; and said, Now this time will my husband be joined unto me, because I have born him three sons: therefore was his name called Levi.

(Genesis 29:35) And she conceived again, and bare a son: and she said, Now will I praise the LORD: therefore she called his name Judah; and left bearing.

(Genesis 30:1) And when Rachel saw that she bare Jacob no children, Rachel envied her sister; and said unto Jacob, Give me children, or else I die.

(Genesis 30:2) And Jacob's anger was kindled against Rachel: and he said, Am I in God's stead, who hath withheld from thee the fruit of the womb?

(Genesis 30:3) And she said, Behold my maid Bilhah, go in unto her; and she shall bear upon my knees, that I may also have children by her.

(Genesis 30:4) And she gave him Bilhah her handmaid to wife: and Jacob went in unto her.

(Genesis 30:5) And Bilhah conceived, and bare Jacob a son.

(Genesis 30:6) And Rachel said, God hath judged me, and hath also heard my voice, and hath given me a son: therefore called she his name Dan.

(Genesis 30:7) And Bilhah Rachel's maid conceived again, and bare Jacob a second son.

(Genesis 30:8) And Rachel said, With great wrestlings have I wrestled with my sister, and I have prevailed: and she called his name Naphtali.

(Genesis 30:9) When Leah saw that she had left bearing, she took Zilpah her maid, and gave her Jacob to wife.

(Genesis 30:10) And Zilpah Leah's maid bare Jacob a son.

(Genesis 30:11) And Leah said, A troop cometh: and she called his name Gad.

(Genesis 30:12) And Zilpah Leah's maid bare Jacob a second son.

(Genesis 30:13) And Leah said, Happy am I, for the daughters will call me blessed: and she called his name Asher.

(Genesis 30:14) And Reuben went in the days of wheat harvest, and found mandrakes in the field, and brought them unto his mother Leah. Then Rachel said to Leah, Give me, I pray thee, of thy son's mandrakes.

(Genesis 30:15) And she said unto her, Is it a small matter that thou hast taken my husband? and wouldest thou take away my son's mandrakes also? And Rachel said, Therefore he shall lie with thee to night for thy son's mandrakes.

(Genesis 30:16) And Jacob came out of the field in the evening, and Leah went out to meet him, and said, Thou must come in unto me; for surely I have hired thee with my son's mandrakes. And he lay with her that night.

Here's my theory about what was going on...

  1. Either Jacob didn't want more children at all or else he didn't want them with Leah his least-favorite wife, so he avoided having relations with her.
  2. Mandrakes were rare and desired by men, perhaps because they caused some sort of ecstatic drug experience. Maybe mandrakes were similar to ginseng.
  3. Perhaps mandrakes also increased the man's willingness to engage in conjugal relations with his wife.
  4. Jacob came out from the field, partook of mandrakes, had conjugal relations with Leah, and she conceived.

(Genesis 30:17) And God hearkened unto Leah, and she conceived, and bare Jacob the fifth son.

(Genesis 30:18) And Leah said, God hath given me my hire, because I have given my maiden to my husband: and she called his name Issachar.

(Genesis 30:19) And Leah conceived again, and bare Jacob the sixth son.

(Genesis 30:20) And Leah said, God hath endued me with a good dowry; now will my husband dwell with me, because I have born him six sons: and she called his name Zebulun.

(Genesis 30:21) And afterwards she bare a daughter, and called her name Dinah.

(Genesis 30:22) And God remembered Rachel, and God hearkened to her, and opened her womb.

(Genesis 30:23) And she conceived, and bare a son; and said, God hath taken away my reproach:

(Genesis 30:24) And she called his name Joseph; and said, The LORD shall add to me another son.

(Genesis 30:25) And it came to pass, when Rachel had born Joseph, that Jacob said unto Laban, Send me away, that I may go unto mine own place, and to my country.

(Genesis 30:26) Give me my wives and my children, for whom I have served thee, and let me go: for thou knowest my service which I have done thee.

(Genesis 30:27) And Laban said unto him, I pray thee, if I have found favour in thine eyes, tarry: for I have learned by experience that the LORD hath blessed me for thy sake.

(Genesis 30:28) And he said, Appoint me thy wages, and I will give it.

(Genesis 30:29) And he said unto him, Thou knowest how I have served thee, and how thy cattle was with me.

(Genesis 30:30) For it was little which thou hadst before I came, and it is now increased unto a multitude; and the LORD hath blessed thee since my coming: and now when shall I provide for mine own house also?

(Genesis 30:31) And he said, What shall I give thee? And Jacob said, Thou shalt not give me any thing: if thou wilt do this thing for me, I will again feed and keep thy flock.

(Genesis 30:32) I will pass through all thy flock to day, removing from thence all the speckled and spotted cattle, and all the brown cattle among the sheep, and the spotted and speckled among the goats: and of such shall be my hire.

(Genesis 30:33) So shall my righteousness answer for me in time to come, when it shall come for my hire before thy face: every one that is not speckled and spotted among the goats, and brown among the sheep, that shall be counted stolen with me.

(Genesis 30:34) And Laban said, Behold, I would it might be according to thy word.

(Genesis 30:35) And he removed that day the he goats that were ringstraked and spotted, and all the she goats that were speckled and spotted, and every one that had some white in it, and all the brown among the sheep, and gave them into the hand of his sons.

(Genesis 30:36) And he set three days' journey betwixt himself and Jacob: and Jacob fed the rest of Laban's flocks.

(Genesis 30:37) And Jacob took him rods of green poplar, and of the hazel and chestnut tree; and pilled white strakes in them, and made the white appear which was in the rods.

(Genesis 30:38) And he set the rods which he had pilled before the flocks in the gutters in the watering troughs when the flocks came to drink, that they should conceive when they came to drink.

(Genesis 30:39) And the flocks conceived before the rods, and brought forth cattle ringstraked, speckled, and spotted.

(Genesis 30:40) And Jacob did separate the lambs, and set the faces of the flocks toward the ringstraked, and all the brown in the flock of Laban; and he put his own flocks by themselves, and put them not unto Laban's cattle.

(Genesis 30:41) And it came to pass, whensoever the stronger cattle did conceive, that Jacob laid the rods before the eyes of the cattle in the gutters, that they might conceive among the rods.

(Genesis 30:42) But when the cattle were feeble, he put them not in: so the feebler were Laban's, and the stronger Jacob's.

(Genesis 30:43) And the man increased exceedingly, and had much cattle, and maidservants, and menservants, and camels, and asses.

(Genesis 31:1) And he heard the words of Laban's sons, saying, Jacob hath taken away all that was our father's; and of that which was our father's hath he gotten all this glory.

(Genesis 31:2) And Jacob beheld the countenance of Laban, and, behold, it was not toward him as before.

(Genesis 31:3) And the LORD said unto Jacob, Return unto the land of thy fathers, and to thy kindred; and I will be with thee.

(Genesis 31:4) And Jacob sent and called Rachel and Leah to the field unto his flock,

(Genesis 31:5) And said unto them, I see your father's countenance, that it is not toward me as before; but the God of my father hath been with me.

(Genesis 31:6) And ye know that with all my power I have served your father.

(Genesis 31:7) And your father hath deceived me, and changed my wages ten times; but God suffered him not to hurt me.

(Genesis 31:8) If he said thus, The speckled shall be thy wages; then all the cattle bare speckled: and if he said thus, The ringstraked shall be thy hire; then bare all the cattle ringstraked.

(Genesis 31:9) Thus God hath taken away the cattle of your father, and given them to me.

(Genesis 31:10) And it came to pass at the time that the cattle conceived, that I lifted up mine eyes, and saw in a dream, and, behold, the rams which leaped upon the cattle were ringstraked, speckled, and grisled.

(Genesis 31:11) And the angel of God spake unto me in a dream, saying, Jacob: And I said, Here am I.

(Genesis 31:12) And he said, Lift up now thine eyes, and see, all the rams which leap upon the cattle are ringstraked, speckled, and grisled: for I have seen all that Laban doeth unto thee.

(Genesis 31:13) I am the God of Bethel, where thou anointedst the pillar, and where thou vowedst a vow unto me: now arise, get thee out from this land, and return unto the land of thy kindred.

(Genesis 31:14) And Rachel and Leah answered and said unto him, Is there yet any portion or inheritance for us in our father's house?

(Genesis 31:15) Are we not counted of him strangers? for he hath sold us, and hath quite devoured also our money.

(Genesis 31:16) For all the riches which God hath taken from our father, that is ours, and our children's: now then, whatsoever God hath said unto thee, do.

(Genesis 31:17) Then Jacob rose up, and set his sons and his wives upon camels;

(Genesis 31:18) And he carried away all his cattle, and all his goods which he had gotten, the cattle of his getting, which he had gotten in Padanaram, for to go to Isaac his father in the land of Canaan.

(Genesis 31:19) And Laban went to shear his sheep: and Rachel had stolen the images that were her father's.

(Genesis 31:20) And Jacob stole away unawares to Laban the Syrian, in that he told him not that he fled.

(Genesis 31:21) So he fled with all that he had; and he rose up, and passed over the river, and set his face toward the mount Gilead.

(Genesis 31:22) And it was told Laban on the third day that Jacob was fled.

(Genesis 31:23) And he took his brethren with him, and pursued after him seven days' journey; and they overtook him in the mount Gilead.

(Genesis 31:24) And God came to Laban the Syrian in a dream by night, and said unto him, Take heed that thou speak not to Jacob either good or bad.

(Genesis 31:25) Then Laban overtook Jacob. Now Jacob had pitched his tent in the mount: and Laban with his brethren pitched in the mount of Gilead.

(Genesis 31:26) And Laban said to Jacob, What hast thou done, that thou hast stolen away unawares to me, and carried away my daughters, as captives taken with the sword?

(Genesis 31:27) Wherefore didst thou flee away secretly, and steal away from me; and didst not tell me, that I might have sent thee away with mirth, and with songs, with tabret, and with harp?

(Genesis 31:28) And hast not suffered me to kiss my sons and my daughters? thou hast now done foolishly in so doing.

(Genesis 31:29) It is in the power of my hand to do you hurt: but the God of your father spake unto me yesternight, saying, Take thou heed that thou speak not to Jacob either good or bad.

(Genesis 31:30) And now, though thou wouldest needs be gone, because thou sore longedst after thy father's house, yet wherefore hast thou stolen my gods?

(Genesis 31:31) And Jacob answered and said to Laban, Because I was afraid: for I said, Peradventure thou wouldest take by force thy daughters from me.

(Genesis 31:32) With whomsoever thou findest thy gods, let him not live: before our brethren discern thou what is thine with me, and take it to thee. For Jacob knew not that Rachel had stolen them.

(Genesis 31:33) And Laban went into Jacob's tent, and into Leah's tent, and into the two maidservants' tents; but he found them not. Then went he out of Leah's tent, and entered into Rachel's tent.

(Genesis 31:34) Now Rachel had taken the images, and put them in the camel's furniture, and sat upon them. And Laban searched all the tent, but found them not.

(Genesis 31:35) And she said to her father, Let it not displease my lord that I cannot rise up before thee; for the custom of women is upon me. And he searched, but found not the images.

(Genesis 31:36) And Jacob was wroth, and chode with Laban: and Jacob answered and said to Laban, What is my trespass? what is my sin, that thou hast so hotly pursued after me?

(Genesis 31:37) Whereas thou hast searched all my stuff, what hast thou found of all thy household stuff? set it here before my brethren and thy brethren, that they may judge betwixt us both.

(Genesis 31:38) This twenty years have I been with thee; thy ewes and thy she goats have not cast their young, and the rams of thy flock have I not eaten.

(Genesis 31:39) That which was torn of beasts I brought not unto thee; I bare the loss of it; of my hand didst thou require it, whether stolen by day, or stolen by night.

(Genesis 31:40) Thus I was; in the day the drought consumed me, and the frost by night; and my sleep departed from mine eyes.

(Genesis 31:41) Thus have I been twenty years in thy house; I served thee fourteen years for thy two daughters, and six years for thy cattle: and thou hast changed my wages ten times.

(Genesis 31:42) Except the God of my father, the God of Abraham, and the fear of Isaac, had been with me, surely thou hadst sent me away now empty. God hath seen mine affliction and the labour of my hands, and rebuked thee yesternight.

(Genesis 31:43) And Laban answered and said unto Jacob, These daughters are my daughters, and these children are my children, and these cattle are my cattle, and all that thou seest is mine: and what can I do this day unto these my daughters, or unto their children which they have born?

(Genesis 31:44) Now therefore come thou, let us make a covenant, I and thou; and let it be for a witness between me and thee.

(Genesis 31:45) And Jacob took a stone, and set it up for a pillar.

(Genesis 31:46) And Jacob said unto his brethren, Gather stones; and they took stones, and made an heap: and they did eat there upon the heap.

(Genesis 31:47) And Laban called it Jegarsahadutha: but Jacob called it Galeed.

(Genesis 31:48) And Laban said, This heap is a witness between me and thee this day. Therefore was the name of it called Galeed;

(Genesis 31:49) And Mizpah; for he said, The LORD watch between me and thee, when we are absent one from another.

(Genesis 31:50) If thou shalt afflict my daughters, or if thou shalt take other wives beside my daughters, no man is with us; see, God is witness betwixt me and thee.

(Genesis 31:51) And Laban said to Jacob, Behold this heap, and behold this pillar, which I have cast betwixt me and thee:

(Genesis 31:52) This heap be witness, and this pillar be witness, that I will not pass over this heap to thee, and that thou shalt not pass over this heap and this pillar unto me, for harm.

(Genesis 31:53) The God of Abraham, and the God of Nahor, the God of their father, judge betwixt us. And Jacob sware by the fear of his father Isaac.

(Genesis 31:54) Then Jacob offered sacrifice upon the mount, and called his brethren to eat bread: and they did eat bread, and tarried all night in the mount.

(Genesis 31:55) And early in the morning Laban rose up, and kissed his sons and his daughters, and blessed them: and Laban departed, and returned unto his place.

(Genesis 32:1) And Jacob went on his way, and the angels of God met him.

(Genesis 32:2) And when Jacob saw them, he said, This is God's host: and he called the name of that place Mahanaim.

(Genesis 32:3) And Jacob sent messengers before him to Esau his brother unto the land of Seir, the country of Edom.

(Genesis 32:4) And he commanded them, saying, Thus shall ye speak unto my lord Esau; Thy servant Jacob saith thus, I have sojourned with Laban, and stayed there until now:

(Genesis 32:5) And I have oxen, and asses, flocks, and menservants, and womenservants: and I have sent to tell my lord, that I may find grace in thy sight.

(Genesis 32:6) And the messengers returned to Jacob, saying, We came to thy brother Esau, and also he cometh to meet thee, and four hundred men with him.

(Genesis 32:7) Then Jacob was greatly afraid and distressed: and he divided the people that was with him, and the flocks, and herds, and the camels, into two bands;

(Genesis 32:8) And said, If Esau come to the one company, and smite it, then the other company which is left shall escape.

(Genesis 32:9) And Jacob said, O God of my father Abraham, and God of my father Isaac, the LORD which saidst unto me, Return unto thy country, and to thy kindred, and I will deal well with thee:

(Genesis 32:10) I am not worthy of the least of all the mercies, and of all the truth, which thou hast shewed unto thy servant; for with my staff I passed over this Jordan; and now I am become two bands.

(Genesis 32:11) Deliver me, I pray thee, from the hand of my brother, from the hand of Esau: for I fear him, lest he will come and smite me, and the mother with the children.

(Genesis 32:12) And thou saidst, I will surely do thee good, and make thy seed as the sand of the sea, which cannot be numbered for multitude.

(Genesis 32:13) And he lodged there that same night; and took of that which came to his hand a present for Esau his brother;

(Genesis 32:14) Two hundred she goats, and twenty he goats, two hundred ewes, and twenty rams,

(Genesis 32:15) Thirty milch camels with their colts, forty kine, and ten bulls, twenty she asses, and ten foals.

(Genesis 32:16) And he delivered them into the hand of his servants, every drove by themselves; and said unto his servants, Pass over before me, and put a space betwixt drove and drove.

(Genesis 32:17) And he commanded the foremost, saying, When Esau my brother meeteth thee, and asketh thee, saying, Whose art thou? and whither goest thou? and whose are these before thee?

(Genesis 32:18) Then thou shalt say, They be thy servant Jacob's; it is a present sent unto my lord Esau: and, behold, also he is behind us.

(Genesis 32:19) And so commanded he the second, and the third, and all that followed the droves, saying, On this manner shall ye speak unto Esau, when ye find him.

(Genesis 32:20) And say ye moreover, Behold, thy servant Jacob is behind us. For he said, I will appease him with the present that goeth before me, and afterward I will see his face; peradventure he will accept of me.

(Genesis 32:21) So went the present over before him: and himself lodged that night in the company.

(Genesis 32:22) And he rose up that night, and took his two wives, and his two womenservants, and his eleven sons, and passed over the ford Jabbok.

(Genesis 32:23) And he took them, and sent them over the brook, and sent over that he had.

Jacob wrestles with the angel

(Genesis 32:24) And Jacob was left alone; and there wrestled a man with him until the breaking of the day.

Some make a big point in insisting that this angel was Christ. I have no opinion about this topic.

We see here that spirit beings can manifest physical forms which can interact with the physical forms of humans. Thus, we should not be surprised by the idea that angels performed genetic engineering leading to the giants. I explain how all this works here...

(Genesis 32:25) And when he saw that he prevailed not against him, he touched the hollow of his thigh; and the hollow of Jacob's thigh was out of joint, as he wrestled with him.

(Genesis 32:26) And he said, Let me go, for the day breaketh. And he said, I will not let thee go, except thou bless me.

(Genesis 32:27) And he said unto him, What is thy name? And he said, Jacob.

(Genesis 32:28) And he said, Thy name shall be called no more Jacob, but Israel: for as a prince hast thou power with God and with men, and hast prevailed.

(Genesis 32:29) And Jacob asked him, and said, Tell me, I pray thee, thy name. And he said, Wherefore is it that thou dost ask after my name? And he blessed him there.

(Genesis 32:30) And Jacob called the name of the place Peniel: for I have seen God face to face, and my life is preserved.

(Genesis 32:31) And as he passed over Penuel the sun rose upon him, and he halted upon his thigh.

(Genesis 32:32) Therefore the children of Israel eat not of the sinew which shrank, which is upon the hollow of the thigh, unto this day: because he touched the hollow of Jacob's thigh in the sinew that shrank.

(Genesis 33:1) And Jacob lifted up his eyes, and looked, and, behold, Esau came, and with him four hundred men. And he divided the children unto Leah, and unto Rachel, and unto the two handmaids.

(Genesis 33:2) And he put the handmaids and their children foremost, and Leah and her children after, and Rachel and Joseph hindermost.

(Genesis 33:3) And he passed over before them, and bowed himself to the ground seven times, until he came near to his brother.

(Genesis 33:4) And Esau ran to meet him, and embraced him, and fell on his neck, and kissed him: and they wept.

(Genesis 33:5) And he lifted up his eyes, and saw the women and the children; and said, Who are those with thee? And he said, The children which God hath graciously given thy servant.

(Genesis 33:6) Then the handmaidens came near, they and their children, and they bowed themselves.

(Genesis 33:7) And Leah also with her children came near, and bowed themselves: and after came Joseph near and Rachel, and they bowed themselves.

(Genesis 33:8) And he said, What meanest thou by all this drove which I met? And he said, These are to find grace in the sight of my lord.

(Genesis 33:9) And Esau said, I have enough, my brother; keep that thou hast unto thyself.

(Genesis 33:10) And Jacob said, Nay, I pray thee, if now I have found grace in thy sight, then receive my present at my hand: for therefore I have seen thy face, as though I had seen the face of God, and thou wast pleased with me.

(Genesis 33:11) Take, I pray thee, my blessing that is brought to thee; because God hath dealt graciously with me, and because I have enough. And he urged him, and he took it.

(Genesis 33:12) And he said, Let us take our journey, and let us go, and I will go before thee.

(Genesis 33:13) And he said unto him, My lord knoweth that the children are tender, and the flocks and herds with young are with me: and if men should overdrive them one day, all the flock will die.

(Genesis 33:14) Let my lord, I pray thee, pass over before his servant: and I will lead on softly, according as the cattle that goeth before me and the children be able to endure, until I come unto my lord unto Seir.

(Genesis 33:15) And Esau said, Let me now leave with thee some of the folk that are with me. And he said, What needeth it? let me find grace in the sight of my lord.

(Genesis 33:16) So Esau returned that day on his way unto Seir.

(Genesis 33:17) And Jacob journeyed to Succoth, and built him an house, and made booths for his cattle: therefore the name of the place is called Succoth.

(Genesis 33:18) And Jacob came to Shalem, a city of Shechem, which is in the land of Canaan, when he came from Padanaram; and pitched his tent before the city.

(Genesis 33:19) And he bought a parcel of a field, where he had spread his tent, at the hand of the children of Hamor, Shechem's father, for an hundred pieces of money.

(Genesis 33:20) And he erected there an altar, and called it EleloheIsrael.

(Genesis 34:1) And Dinah the daughter of Leah, which she bare unto Jacob, went out to see the daughters of the land.

(Genesis 34:2) And when Shechem the son of Hamor the Hivite, prince of the country, saw her, he took her, and lay with her, and defiled her.

(Genesis 34:3) And his soul clave unto Dinah the daughter of Jacob, and he loved the damsel, and spake kindly unto the damsel.

(Genesis 34:4) And Shechem spake unto his father Hamor, saying, Get me this damsel to wife.

(Genesis 34:5) And Jacob heard that he had defiled Dinah his daughter: now his sons were with his cattle in the field: and Jacob held his peace until they were come.

(Genesis 34:6) And Hamor the father of Shechem went out unto Jacob to commune with him.

(Genesis 34:7) And the sons of Jacob came out of the field when they heard it: and the men were grieved, and they were very wroth, because he had wrought folly in Israel in lying with Jacob's daughter; which thing ought not to be done.

(Genesis 34:8) And Hamor communed with them, saying, The soul of my son Shechem longeth for your daughter: I pray you give her him to wife.

(Genesis 34:9) And make ye marriages with us, and give your daughters unto us, and take our daughters unto you.

(Genesis 34:10) And ye shall dwell with us: and the land shall be before you; dwell and trade ye therein, and get you possessions therein.

(Genesis 34:11) And Shechem said unto her father and unto her brethren, Let me find grace in your eyes, and what ye shall say unto me I will give.

(Genesis 34:12) Ask me never so much dowry and gift, and I will give according as ye shall say unto me: but give me the damsel to wife.

(Genesis 34:13) And the sons of Jacob answered Shechem and Hamor his father deceitfully, and said, because he had defiled Dinah their sister:

(Genesis 34:14) And they said unto them, We cannot do this thing, to give our sister to one that is uncircumcised; for that were a reproach unto us:

(Genesis 34:15) But in this will we consent unto you: If ye will be as we be, that every male of you be circumcised;

(Genesis 34:16) Then will we give our daughters unto you, and we will take your daughters to us, and we will dwell with you, and we will become one people.

(Genesis 34:17) But if ye will not hearken unto us, to be circumcised; then will we take our daughter, and we will be gone.

(Genesis 34:18) And their words pleased Hamor, and Shechem Hamor's son.

(Genesis 34:19) And the young man deferred not to do the thing, because he had delight in Jacob's daughter: and he was more honourable than all the house of his father.

(Genesis 34:20) And Hamor and Shechem his son came unto the gate of their city, and communed with the men of their city, saying,

(Genesis 34:21) These men are peaceable with us; therefore let them dwell in the land, and trade therein; for the land, behold, it is large enough for them; let us take their daughters to us for wives, and let us give them our daughters.

(Genesis 34:22) Only herein will the men consent unto us for to dwell with us, to be one people, if every male among us be circumcised, as they are circumcised.

(Genesis 34:23) Shall not their cattle and their substance and every beast of theirs be ours? only let us consent unto them, and they will dwell with us.

(Genesis 34:24) And unto Hamor and unto Shechem his son hearkened all that went out of the gate of his city; and every male was circumcised, all that went out of the gate of his city.

(Genesis 34:25) And it came to pass on the third day, when they were sore, that two of the sons of Jacob, Simeon and Levi, Dinah's brethren, took each man his sword, and came upon the city boldly, and slew all the males.

(Genesis 34:26) And they slew Hamor and Shechem his son with the edge of the sword, and took Dinah out of Shechem's house, and went out.

(Genesis 34:27) The sons of Jacob came upon the slain, and spoiled the city, because they had defiled their sister.

(Genesis 34:28) They took their sheep, and their oxen, and their asses, and that which was in the city, and that which was in the field,

(Genesis 34:29) And all their wealth, and all their little ones, and their wives took they captive, and spoiled even all that was in the house.

(Genesis 34:30) And Jacob said to Simeon and Levi, Ye have troubled me to make me to stink among the inhabitants of the land, among the Canaanites and the Perizzites: and I being few in number, they shall gather themselves together against me, and slay me; and I shall be destroyed, I and my house.

(Genesis 34:31) And they said, Should he deal with our sister as with an harlot?

(Genesis 35:1) And God said unto Jacob, Arise, go up to Bethel, and dwell there: and make there an altar unto God, that appeared unto thee when thou fleddest from the face of Esau thy brother.

(Genesis 35:2) Then Jacob said unto his household, and to all that were with him, Put away the strange gods that are among you, and be clean, and change your garments:

(Genesis 35:3) And let us arise, and go up to Bethel; and I will make there an altar unto God, who answered me in the day of my distress, and was with me in the way which I went.

(Genesis 35:4) And they gave unto Jacob all the strange gods which were in their hand, and all their earrings which were in their ears; and Jacob hid them under the oak which was by Shechem.

(Genesis 35:5) And they journeyed: and the terror of God was upon the cities that were round about them, and they did not pursue after the sons of Jacob.

(Genesis 35:6) So Jacob came to Luz, which is in the land of Canaan, that is, Bethel, he and all the people that were with him.

(Genesis 35:7) And he built there an altar, and called the place Elbethel: because there God appeared unto him, when he fled from the face of his brother.

Building these altars to God is not idolatry. It is proper for humans to express their devotion to God by building something or creating something. Thus, people write songs or paint paintings or write poems or books as expressions of their devotion to God. Jacob named the place based on what was occurring in his life. This is similar to people writing a devotional song containing the content of their spiritual journey and struggles of the time.

(Genesis 35:8) But Deborah Rebekah's nurse died, and she was buried beneath Bethel under an oak: and the name of it was called Allonbachuth.

(Genesis 35:9) And God appeared unto Jacob again, when he came out of Padanaram, and blessed him.

(Genesis 35:10) And God said unto him, Thy name is Jacob: thy name shall not be called any more Jacob, but Israel shall be thy name: and he called his name Israel.

(Genesis 35:11) And God said unto him, I am God Almighty: be fruitful and multiply; a nation and a company of nations shall be of thee, and kings shall come out of thy loins;

(Genesis 35:12) And the land which I gave Abraham and Isaac, to thee I will give it, and to thy seed after thee will I give the land.

(Genesis 35:13) And God went up from him in the place where he talked with him.

(Genesis 35:14) And Jacob set up a pillar in the place where he talked with him, even a pillar of stone: and he poured a drink offering thereon, and he poured oil thereon.

(Genesis 35:15) And Jacob called the name of the place where God spake with him, Bethel.

(Genesis 35:16) And they journeyed from Bethel; and there was but a little way to come to Ephrath: and Rachel travailed, and she had hard labour.

(Genesis 35:17) And it came to pass, when she was in hard labour, that the midwife said unto her, Fear not; thou shalt have this son also.

(Genesis 35:18) And it came to pass, as her soul was in departing, (for she died) that she called his name Benoni: but his father called him Benjamin.

(Genesis 35:19) And Rachel died, and was buried in the way to Ephrath, which is Bethlehem.

(Genesis 35:20) And Jacob set a pillar upon her grave: that is the pillar of Rachel's grave unto this day.

(Genesis 35:21) And Israel journeyed, and spread his tent beyond the tower of Edar.

(Genesis 35:22) And it came to pass, when Israel dwelt in that land, that Reuben went and lay with Bilhah his father's concubine: and Israel heard it. Now the sons of Jacob were twelve:

(Genesis 35:23) The sons of Leah; Reuben, Jacob's firstborn, and Simeon, and Levi, and Judah, and Issachar, and Zebulun:

(Genesis 35:24) The sons of Rachel; Joseph, and Benjamin:

(Genesis 35:25) And the sons of Bilhah, Rachel's handmaid; Dan, and Naphtali:

(Genesis 35:26) And the sons of Zilpah, Leah's handmaid; Gad, and Asher: these are the sons of Jacob, which were born to him in Padanaram.

(Genesis 35:27) And Jacob came unto Isaac his father unto Mamre, unto the city of Arbah, which is Hebron, where Abraham and Isaac sojourned.

(Genesis 35:28) And the days of Isaac were an hundred and fourscore years.

(Genesis 35:29) And Isaac gave up the ghost, and died, and was gathered unto his people, being old and full of days: and his sons Esau and Jacob buried him.

(Genesis 36:1) Now these are the generations of Esau, who is Edom.

(Genesis 36:2) Esau took his wives of the daughters of Canaan; Adah the daughter of Elon the Hittite, and Aholibamah the daughter of Anah the daughter of Zibeon the Hivite;

(Genesis 36:3) And Bashemath Ishmael's daughter, sister of Nebajoth.

(Genesis 36:4) And Adah bare to Esau Eliphaz; and Bashemath bare Reuel;

(Genesis 36:5) And Aholibamah bare Jeush, and Jaalam, and Korah: these are the sons of Esau, which were born unto him in the land of Canaan.

(Genesis 36:6) And Esau took his wives, and his sons, and his daughters, and all the persons of his house, and his cattle, and all his beasts, and all his substance, which he had got in the land of Canaan; and went into the country from the face of his brother Jacob.

(Genesis 36:7) For their riches were more than that they might dwell together; and the land wherein they were strangers could not bear them because of their cattle.

(Genesis 36:8) Thus dwelt Esau in mount Seir: Esau is Edom.

(Genesis 36:9) And these are the generations of Esau the father of the Edomites in mount Seir:

(Genesis 36:10) These are the names of Esau's sons; Eliphaz the son of Adah the wife of Esau, Reuel the son of Bashemath the wife of Esau.

(Genesis 36:11) And the sons of Eliphaz were Teman, Omar, Zepho, and Gatam, and Kenaz.

(Genesis 36:12) And Timna was concubine to Eliphaz Esau's son; and she bare to Eliphaz Amalek: these were the sons of Adah Esau's wife.

(Genesis 36:13) And these are the sons of Reuel; Nahath, and Zerah, Shammah, and Mizzah: these were the sons of Bashemath Esau's wife.

(Genesis 36:14) And these were the sons of Aholibamah, the daughter of Anah the daughter of Zibeon, Esau's wife: and she bare to Esau Jeush, and Jaalam, and Korah.

(Genesis 36:15) These were dukes of the sons of Esau: the sons of Eliphaz the firstborn son of Esau; duke Teman, duke Omar, duke Zepho, duke Kenaz,

(Genesis 36:16) Duke Korah, duke Gatam, and duke Amalek: these are the dukes that came of Eliphaz in the land of Edom; these were the sons of Adah.

(Genesis 36:17) And these are the sons of Reuel Esau's son; duke Nahath, duke Zerah, duke Shammah, duke Mizzah: these are the dukes that came of Reuel in the land of Edom; these are the sons of Bashemath Esau's wife.

(Genesis 36:18) And these are the sons of Aholibamah Esau's wife; duke Jeush, duke Jaalam, duke Korah: these were the dukes that came of Aholibamah the daughter of Anah, Esau's wife.

(Genesis 36:19) These are the sons of Esau, who is Edom, and these are their dukes.

(Genesis 36:20) These are the sons of Seir the Horite, who inhabited the land; Lotan, and Shobal, and Zibeon, and Anah,

(Genesis 36:21) And Dishon, and Ezer, and Dishan: these are the dukes of the Horites, the children of Seir in the land of Edom.

(Genesis 36:22) And the children of Lotan were Hori and Hemam; and Lotan's sister was Timna.

(Genesis 36:23) And the children of Shobal were these; Alvan, and Manahath, and Ebal, Shepho, and Onam.

(Genesis 36:24) And these are the children of Zibeon; both Ajah, and Anah: this was that Anah that found the mules in the wilderness, as he fed the asses of Zibeon his father.

(Genesis 36:25) And the children of Anah were these; Dishon, and Aholibamah the daughter of Anah.

(Genesis 36:26) And these are the children of Dishon; Hemdan, and Eshban, and Ithran, and Cheran.

(Genesis 36:27) The children of Ezer are these; Bilhan, and Zaavan, and Akan.

(Genesis 36:28) The children of Dishan are these; Uz, and Aran.

(Genesis 36:29) These are the dukes that came of the Horites; duke Lotan, duke Shobal, duke Zibeon, duke Anah,

(Genesis 36:30) Duke Dishon, duke Ezer, duke Dishan: these are the dukes that came of Hori, among their dukes in the land of Seir.

(Genesis 36:31) And these are the kings that reigned in the land of Edom, before there reigned any king over the children of Israel.

(Genesis 36:32) And Bela the son of Beor reigned in Edom: and the name of his city was Dinhabah.

(Genesis 36:33) And Bela died, and Jobab the son of Zerah of Bozrah reigned in his stead.

(Genesis 36:34) And Jobab died, and Husham of the land of Temani reigned in his stead.

(Genesis 36:35) And Husham died, and Hadad the son of Bedad, who smote Midian in the field of Moab, reigned in his stead: and the name of his city was Avith.

(Genesis 36:36) And Hadad died, and Samlah of Masrekah reigned in his stead.

(Genesis 36:37) And Samlah died, and Saul of Rehoboth by the river reigned in his stead.

(Genesis 36:38) And Saul died, and Baalhanan the son of Achbor reigned in his stead.

(Genesis 36:39) And Baalhanan the son of Achbor died, and Hadar reigned in his stead: and the name of his city was Pau; and his wife's name was Mehetabel, the daughter of Matred, the daughter of Mezahab.

(Genesis 36:40) And these are the names of the dukes that came of Esau, according to their families, after their places, by their names; duke Timnah, duke Alvah, duke Jetheth,

(Genesis 36:41) Duke Aholibamah, duke Elah, duke Pinon,

(Genesis 36:42) Duke Kenaz, duke Teman, duke Mibzar,

(Genesis 36:43) Duke Magdiel, duke Iram: these be the dukes of Edom, according to their habitations in the land of their possession: he is Esau the father of the Edomites.

(Genesis 37:1) And Jacob dwelt in the land wherein his father was a stranger, in the land of Canaan.

(Genesis 37:2) These are the generations of Jacob. Joseph, being seventeen years old, was feeding the flock with his brethren; and the lad was with the sons of Bilhah, and with the sons of Zilpah, his father's wives: and Joseph brought unto his father their evil report.

(Genesis 37:3) Now Israel loved Joseph more than all his children, because he was the son of his old age: and he made him a coat of many colours.

(Genesis 37:4) And when his brethren saw that their father loved him more than all his brethren, they hated him, and could not speak peaceably unto him.

(Genesis 37:5) And Joseph dreamed a dream, and he told it his brethren: and they hated him yet the more.

(Genesis 37:6) And he said unto them, Hear, I pray you, this dream which I have dreamed:

(Genesis 37:7) For, behold, we were binding sheaves in the field, and, lo, my sheaf arose, and also stood upright; and, behold, your sheaves stood round about, and made obeisance to my sheaf.

(Genesis 37:8) And his brethren said to him, Shalt thou indeed reign over us? or shalt thou indeed have dominion over us? And they hated him yet the more for his dreams, and for his words.

It is amazing they immediately knew the meaning of the dream. This was a dysfunctional family in which the siblings had such hatred for each other that they would resort to murder. Perhaps the culture of the day did not encourage virtue and was accepting of very heinous crimes; certainly we see this kind of thing in the early chapters of Genesis. In my view we should judge people's behavior with our modern view of morality — we should not merely overlook such bad behavior as if it doesn't mean anything.

(Genesis 37:9) And he dreamed yet another dream, and told it his brethren, and said, Behold, I have dreamed a dream more; and, behold, the sun and the moon and the eleven stars made obeisance to me.

(Genesis 37:10) And he told it to his father, and to his brethren: and his father rebuked him, and said unto him, What is this dream that thou hast dreamed? Shall I and thy mother and thy brethren indeed come to bow down ourselves to thee to the earth?

(Genesis 37:11) And his brethren envied him; but his father observed the saying.

(Genesis 37:12) And his brethren went to feed their father's flock in Shechem.

(Genesis 37:13) And Israel said unto Joseph, Do not thy brethren feed the flock in Shechem? come, and I will send thee unto them. And he said to him, Here am I.

(Genesis 37:14) And he said to him, Go, I pray thee, see whether it be well with thy brethren, and well with the flocks; and bring me word again. So he sent him out of the vale of Hebron, and he came to Shechem.

(Genesis 37:15) And a certain man found him, and, behold, he was wandering in the field: and the man asked him, saying, What seekest thou?

(Genesis 37:16) And he said, I seek my brethren: tell me, I pray thee, where they feed their flocks.

(Genesis 37:17) And the man said, They are departed hence; for I heard them say, Let us go to Dothan. And Joseph went after his brethren, and found them in Dothan.

(Genesis 37:18) And when they saw him afar off, even before he came near unto them, they conspired against him to slay him.

(Genesis 37:19) And they said one to another, Behold, this dreamer cometh.

(Genesis 37:20) Come now therefore, and let us slay him, and cast him into some pit, and we will say, Some evil beast hath devoured him: and we shall see what will become of his dreams.

(Genesis 37:21) And Reuben heard it, and he delivered him out of their hands; and said, Let us not kill him.

(Genesis 37:22) And Reuben said unto them, Shed no blood, but cast him into this pit that is in the wilderness, and lay no hand upon him; that he might rid him out of their hands, to deliver him to his father again.

(Genesis 37:23) And it came to pass, when Joseph was come unto his brethren, that they stript Joseph out of his coat, his coat of many colours that was on him;

(Genesis 37:24) And they took him, and cast him into a pit: and the pit was empty, there was no water in it.

(Genesis 37:25) And they sat down to eat bread: and they lifted up their eyes and looked, and, behold, a company of Ishmeelites came from Gilead with their camels bearing spicery and balm and myrrh, going to carry it down to Egypt.

(Genesis 37:26) And Judah said unto his brethren, What profit is it if we slay our brother, and conceal his blood?

(Genesis 37:27) Come, and let us sell him to the Ishmeelites, and let not our hand be upon him; for he is our brother and our flesh. And his brethren were content.

(Genesis 37:28) Then there passed by Midianites merchantmen; and they drew and lifted up Joseph out of the pit, and sold Joseph to the Ishmeelites for twenty pieces of silver: and they brought Joseph into Egypt.

(Genesis 37:29) And Reuben returned unto the pit; and, behold, Joseph was not in the pit; and he rent his clothes.

(Genesis 37:30) And he returned unto his brethren, and said, The child is not; and I, whither shall I go?

(Genesis 37:31) And they took Joseph's coat, and killed a kid of the goats, and dipped the coat in the blood;

(Genesis 37:32) And they sent the coat of many colours, and they brought it to their father; and said, This have we found: know now whether it be thy son's coat or no.

(Genesis 37:33) And he knew it, and said, It is my son's coat; an evil beast hath devoured him; Joseph is without doubt rent in pieces.

(Genesis 37:34) And Jacob rent his clothes, and put sackcloth upon his loins, and mourned for his son many days.

(Genesis 37:35) And all his sons and all his daughters rose up to comfort him; but he refused to be comforted; and he said, For I will go down into the grave [sheol] unto my son mourning. Thus his father wept for him.

Jacob expected to again see Joseph after death, in sheol.

(Genesis 37:36) And the Midianites sold him into Egypt unto Potiphar, an officer of Pharaoh's, and captain of the guard.

(Genesis 38:1) And it came to pass at that time, that Judah went down from his brethren, and turned in to a certain Adullamite, whose name was Hirah.

(Genesis 38:2) And Judah saw there a daughter of a certain Canaanite, whose name was Shuah; and he took her, and went in unto her.

(Genesis 38:3) And she conceived, and bare a son; and he called his name Er.

(Genesis 38:4) And she conceived again, and bare a son; and she called his name Onan.

(Genesis 38:5) And she yet again conceived, and bare a son; and called his name Shelah: and he was at Chezib, when she bare him.

(Genesis 38:6) And Judah took a wife for Er his firstborn, whose name was Tamar.

(Genesis 38:7) And Er, Judah's firstborn, was wicked in the sight of the LORD; and the LORD slew him.

(Genesis 38:8) And Judah said unto Onan, Go in unto thy brother's wife, and marry her, and raise up seed to thy brother.

(Genesis 38:9) And Onan knew that the seed should not be his; and it came to pass, when he went in unto his brother's wife, that he spilled it on the ground, lest that he should give seed to his brother.

Onan was partially obedient in that he did half of what Judah asked of him. But the intent was to provide children for Tamar, and he failed on purpose to do this.

This was a dysfunctional culture that required such kinds of relationships to care for people.

(Genesis 38:10) And the thing which he did displeased the LORD: wherefore he slew him also.

Some claim this passage proves that contraception is gravely immoral, that God killed Onan for using a form of contraception. I reject the notion that God killed Onan because he used a form of contraception. His crime was that he exploited this woman by pretending to give her a child; in effect, he raped her, but by trickery, not violence.

(Genesis 38:11) Then said Judah to Tamar his daughter in law, Remain a widow at thy father's house, till Shelah my son be grown: for he said, Lest peradventure he die also, as his brethren did. And Tamar went and dwelt in her father's house.

Judah apparently thought that his last son, Shelah, would not honor his duty to provide children for Tamar and that God would kill him also, leaving Judah without sons. He cares for Tamar's plight, but only up to a point. When it interferes with his own needs, then he abandons her.

(Genesis 38:12) And in process of time the daughter of Shuah Judah's wife died; and Judah was comforted, and went up unto his sheepshearers to Timnath, he and his friend Hirah the Adullamite.

(Genesis 38:13) And it was told Tamar, saying, Behold thy father in law goeth up to Timnath to shear his sheep.

(Genesis 38:14) And she put her widow's garments off from her, and covered her with a vail, and wrapped herself, and sat in an open place, which is by the way to Timnath; for she saw that Shelah was grown, and she was not given unto him to wife.

(Genesis 38:15) When Judah saw her, he thought her to be an harlot; because she had covered her face.

These are a very immoral people.

Some think we should be forgiving of corrupt Church leaders throughout Church history (and there were very many of these.)Unfortunately, the Catholic Church does not allow for this option. In claiming that bishops are the teachers and defenders of the faith passed-down by the apostles, and that they teach infallibly, we would therefore be forced to accept the idea that people (the corrupt bishops) who neither believe the truths taught by the apostles nor who practice the commands of Christ; that these were chosen by Christ to be his ordained leaders.

To accept this notion we would have to accept that the beginnings of the Church were no better than the beginnings of the nation of Israel; that God used very immoral men in forming the Church just as he used very immoral men in forming the nation of Israel. The problem with this is that the New Testament teaches the opposite. Jesus demanded that Church leaders be holy, just as the apostles demanded the same from the Church leaders.

(Genesis 38:16) And he turned unto her by the way, and said, Go to, I pray thee, let me come in unto thee; (for he knew not that she was his daughter in law.) And she said, What wilt thou give me, that thou mayest come in unto me?

(Genesis 38:17) And he said, I will send thee a kid from the flock. And she said, Wilt thou give me a pledge, till thou send it?

(Genesis 38:18) And he said, What pledge shall I give thee? And she said, Thy signet, and thy bracelets, and thy staff that is in thine hand. And he gave it her, and came in unto her, and she conceived by him.

(Genesis 38:19) And she arose, and went away, and laid by her vail from her, and put on the garments of her widowhood.

(Genesis 38:20) And Judah sent the kid by the hand of his friend the Adullamite, to receive his pledge from the woman's hand: but he found her not.

(Genesis 38:21) Then he asked the men of that place, saying, Where is the harlot, that was openly by the way side? And they said, There was no harlot in this place.

(Genesis 38:22) And he returned to Judah, and said, I cannot find her; and also the men of the place said, that there was no harlot in this place.

(Genesis 38:23) And Judah said, Let her take it to her, lest we be shamed: behold, I sent this kid, and thou hast not found her.

(Genesis 38:24) And it came to pass about three months after, that it was told Judah, saying, Tamar thy daughter in law hath played the harlot; and also, behold, she is with child by whoredom. And Judah said, Bring her forth, and let her be burnt.

Judah was such a hypocrite to wish to kill a relative for being a prostitute when he had a relationship with someone he thought was a prostitute.

(Genesis 38:25) When she was brought forth, she sent to her father in law, saying, By the man, whose these are, am I with child: and she said, Discern, I pray thee, whose are these, the signet, and bracelets, and staff.

(Genesis 38:26) And Judah acknowledged them, and said, She hath been more righteous than I; because that I gave her not to Shelah my son. And he knew her again no more.

(Genesis 38:27) And it came to pass in the time of her travail, that, behold, twins were in her womb.

(Genesis 38:28) And it came to pass, when she travailed, that the one put out his hand: and the midwife took and bound upon his hand a scarlet thread, saying, This came out first.

(Genesis 38:29) And it came to pass, as he drew back his hand, that, behold, his brother came out: and she said, How hast thou broken forth? this breach be upon thee: therefore his name was called Pharez.

(Genesis 38:30) And afterward came out his brother, that had the scarlet thread upon his hand: and his name was called Zarah.

(Genesis 39:1) And Joseph was brought down to Egypt; and Potiphar, an officer of Pharaoh, captain of the guard, an Egyptian, bought him of the hands of the Ishmeelites, which had brought him down thither.

(Genesis 39:2) And the LORD was with Joseph, and he was a prosperous man; and he was in the house of his master the Egyptian.

(Genesis 39:3) And his master saw that the LORD was with him, and that the LORD made all that he did to prosper in his hand.

(Genesis 39:4) And Joseph found grace in his sight, and he served him: and he made him overseer over his house, and all that he had he put into his hand.

(Genesis 39:5) And it came to pass from the time that he had made him overseer in his house, and over all that he had, that the LORD blessed the Egyptian's house for Joseph's sake; and the blessing of the LORD was upon all that he had in the house, and in the field.

(Genesis 39:6) And he left all that he had in Joseph's hand; and he knew not ought he had, save the bread which he did eat. And Joseph was a goodly person, and well favoured.

(Genesis 39:7) And it came to pass after these things, that his master's wife cast her eyes upon Joseph; and she said, Lie with me.

(Genesis 39:8) But he refused, and said unto his master's wife, Behold, my master wotteth not what is with me in the house, and he hath committed all that he hath to my hand;

(Genesis 39:9) There is none greater in this house than I; neither hath he kept back any thing from me but thee, because thou art his wife: how then can I do this great wickedness, and sin against God?

(Genesis 39:10) And it came to pass, as she spake to Joseph day by day, that he hearkened not unto her, to lie by her, or to be with her.

(Genesis 39:11) And it came to pass about this time, that Joseph went into the house to do his business; and there was none of the men of the house there within.

(Genesis 39:12) And she caught him by his garment, saying, Lie with me: and he left his garment in her hand, and fled, and got him out.

(Genesis 39:13) And it came to pass, when she saw that he had left his garment in her hand, and was fled forth,

(Genesis 39:14) That she called unto the men of her house, and spake unto them, saying, See, he hath brought in an Hebrew unto us to mock us; he came in unto me to lie with me, and I cried with a loud voice:

(Genesis 39:15) And it came to pass, when he heard that I lifted up my voice and cried, that he left his garment with me, and fled, and got him out.

(Genesis 39:16) And she laid up his garment by her, until his lord came home.

(Genesis 39:17) And she spake unto him according to these words, saying, The Hebrew servant, which thou hast brought unto us, came in unto me to mock me:

(Genesis 39:18) And it came to pass, as I lifted up my voice and cried, that he left his garment with me, and fled out.

(Genesis 39:19) And it came to pass, when his master heard the words of his wife, which she spake unto him, saying, After this manner did thy servant to me; that his wrath was kindled.

(Genesis 39:20) And Joseph's master took him, and put him into the prison, a place where the king's prisoners were bound: and he was there in the prison.

(Genesis 39:21) But the LORD was with Joseph, and shewed him mercy, and gave him favour in the sight of the keeper of the prison.

(Genesis 39:22) And the keeper of the prison committed to Joseph's hand all the prisoners that were in the prison; and whatsoever they did there, he was the doer of it.

(Genesis 39:23) The keeper of the prison looked not to any thing that was under his hand; because the LORD was with him, and that which he did, the LORD made it to prosper.

(Genesis 40:1) And it came to pass after these things, that the butler of the king of Egypt and his baker had offended their lord the king of Egypt.

(Genesis 40:2) And Pharaoh was wroth against two of his officers, against the chief of the butlers, and against the chief of the bakers.

(Genesis 40:3) And he put them in ward in the house of the captain of the guard, into the prison, the place where Joseph was bound.

(Genesis 40:4) And the captain of the guard charged Joseph with them, and he served them: and they continued a season in ward.

(Genesis 40:5) And they dreamed a dream both of them, each man his dream in one night, each man according to the interpretation of his dream, the butler and the baker of the king of Egypt, which were bound in the prison.

(Genesis 40:6) And Joseph came in unto them in the morning, and looked upon them, and, behold, they were sad.

(Genesis 40:7) And he asked Pharaoh's officers that were with him in the ward of his lord's house, saying, Wherefore look ye so sadly to day?

(Genesis 40:8) And they said unto him, We have dreamed a dream, and there is no interpreter of it. And Joseph said unto them, Do not interpretations belong to God? tell me them, I pray you.

(Genesis 40:9) And the chief butler told his dream to Joseph, and said to him, In my dream, behold, a vine was before me;

(Genesis 40:10) And in the vine were three branches: and it was as though it budded, and her blossoms shot forth; and the clusters thereof brought forth ripe grapes:

(Genesis 40:11) And Pharaoh's cup was in my hand: and I took the grapes, and pressed them into Pharaoh's cup, and I gave the cup into Pharaoh's hand.

(Genesis 40:12) And Joseph said unto him, This is the interpretation of it: The three branches are three days:

(Genesis 40:13) Yet within three days shall Pharaoh lift up thine head, and restore thee unto thy place: and thou shalt deliver Pharaoh's cup into his hand, after the former manner when thou wast his butler.

(Genesis 40:14) But think on me when it shall be well with thee, and shew kindness, I pray thee, unto me, and make mention of me unto Pharaoh, and bring me out of this house:

(Genesis 40:15) For indeed I was stolen away out of the land of the Hebrews: and here also have I done nothing that they should put me into the dungeon.

(Genesis 40:16) When the chief baker saw that the interpretation was good, he said unto Joseph, I also was in my dream, and, behold, I had three white baskets on my head:

(Genesis 40:17) And in the uppermost basket there was of all manner of bakemeats for Pharaoh; and the birds did eat them out of the basket upon my head.

(Genesis 40:18) And Joseph answered and said, This is the interpretation thereof: The three baskets are three days:

(Genesis 40:19) Yet within three days shall Pharaoh lift up thy head from off thee, and shall hang thee on a tree; and the birds shall eat thy flesh from off thee.

(Genesis 40:20) And it came to pass the third day, which was Pharaoh's birthday, that he made a feast unto all his servants: and he lifted up the head of the chief butler and of the chief baker among his servants.

(Genesis 40:21) And he restored the chief butler unto his butlership again; and he gave the cup into Pharaoh's hand:

(Genesis 40:22) But he hanged the chief baker: as Joseph had interpreted to them.

(Genesis 40:23) Yet did not the chief butler remember Joseph, but forgat him.

(Genesis 41:1) And it came to pass at the end of two full years, that Pharaoh dreamed: and, behold, he stood by the river.

(Genesis 41:2) And, behold, there came up out of the river seven well favoured kine and fatfleshed; and they fed in a meadow.

(Genesis 41:3) And, behold, seven other kine came up after them out of the river, ill favoured and leanfleshed; and stood by the other kine upon the brink of the river.

(Genesis 41:4) And the ill favoured and leanfleshed kine did eat up the seven well favoured and fat kine. So Pharaoh awoke.

(Genesis 41:5) And he slept and dreamed the second time: and, behold, seven ears of corn came up upon one stalk, rank and good.

(Genesis 41:6) And, behold, seven thin ears and blasted with the east wind sprung up after them.

(Genesis 41:7) And the seven thin ears devoured the seven rank and full ears. And Pharaoh awoke, and, behold, it was a dream.

(Genesis 41:8) And it came to pass in the morning that his spirit was troubled; and he sent and called for all the magicians of Egypt, and all the wise men thereof: and Pharaoh told them his dream; but there was none that could interpret them unto Pharaoh.

(Genesis 41:9) Then spake the chief butler unto Pharaoh, saying, I do remember my faults this day:

(Genesis 41:10) Pharaoh was wroth with his servants, and put me in ward in the captain of the guard's house, both me and the chief baker:

(Genesis 41:11) And we dreamed a dream in one night, I and he; we dreamed each man according to the interpretation of his dream.

(Genesis 41:12) And there was there with us a young man, an Hebrew, servant to the captain of the guard; and we told him, and he interpreted to us our dreams; to each man according to his dream he did interpret.

(Genesis 41:13) And it came to pass, as he interpreted to us, so it was; me he restored unto mine office, and him he hanged.

(Genesis 41:14) Then Pharaoh sent and called Joseph, and they brought him hastily out of the dungeon: and he shaved himself, and changed his raiment, and came in unto Pharaoh.

(Genesis 41:15) And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, I have dreamed a dream, and there is none that can interpret it: and I have heard say of thee, that thou canst understand a dream to interpret it.

(Genesis 41:16) And Joseph answered Pharaoh, saying, It is not in me: God shall give Pharaoh an answer of peace.

(Genesis 41:17) And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, In my dream, behold, I stood upon the bank of the river:

(Genesis 41:18) And, behold, there came up out of the river seven kine, fatfleshed and well favoured; and they fed in a meadow:

(Genesis 41:19) And, behold, seven other kine came up after them, poor and very ill favoured and leanfleshed, such as I never saw in all the land of Egypt for badness:

(Genesis 41:20) And the lean and the ill favoured kine did eat up the first seven fat kine:

(Genesis 41:21) And when they had eaten them up, it could not be known that they had eaten them; but they were still ill favoured, as at the beginning. So I awoke.

(Genesis 41:22) And I saw in my dream, and, behold, seven ears came up in one stalk, full and good:

(Genesis 41:23) And, behold, seven ears, withered, thin, and blasted with the east wind, sprung up after them:

(Genesis 41:24) And the thin ears devoured the seven good ears: and I told this unto the magicians; but there was none that could declare it to me.

(Genesis 41:25) And Joseph said unto Pharaoh, The dream of Pharaoh is one: God hath shewed Pharaoh what he is about to do.

(Genesis 41:26) The seven good kine are seven years; and the seven good ears are seven years: the dream is one.

(Genesis 41:27) And the seven thin and ill favoured kine that came up after them are seven years; and the seven empty ears blasted with the east wind shall be seven years of famine.

(Genesis 41:28) This is the thing which I have spoken unto Pharaoh: What God is about to do he sheweth unto Pharaoh.

(Genesis 41:29) Behold, there come seven years of great plenty throughout all the land of Egypt:

(Genesis 41:30) And there shall arise after them seven years of famine; and all the plenty shall be forgotten in the land of Egypt; and the famine shall consume the land;

(Genesis 41:31) And the plenty shall not be known in the land by reason of that famine following; for it shall be very grievous.

(Genesis 41:32) And for that the dream was doubled unto Pharaoh twice; it is because the thing is established by God, and God will shortly bring it to pass.

(Genesis 41:33) Now therefore let Pharaoh look out a man discreet and wise, and set him over the land of Egypt.

(Genesis 41:34) Let Pharaoh do this, and let him appoint officers over the land, and take up the fifth part of the land of Egypt in the seven plenteous years.

(Genesis 41:35) And let them gather all the food of those good years that come, and lay up corn under the hand of Pharaoh, and let them keep food in the cities.

(Genesis 41:36) And that food shall be for store to the land against the seven years of famine, which shall be in the land of Egypt; that the land perish not through the famine.

(Genesis 41:37) And the thing was good in the eyes of Pharaoh, and in the eyes of all his servants.

(Genesis 41:38) And Pharaoh said unto his servants, Can we find such a one as this is, a man in whom the Spirit of God is?

(Genesis 41:39) And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, Forasmuch as God hath shewed thee all this, there is none so discreet and wise as thou art:

(Genesis 41:40) Thou shalt be over my house, and according unto thy word shall all my people be ruled: only in the throne will I be greater than thou.

(Genesis 41:41) And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, See, I have set thee over all the land of Egypt.

(Genesis 41:42) And Pharaoh took off his ring from his hand, and put it upon Joseph's hand, and arrayed him in vestures of fine linen, and put a gold chain about his neck;

(Genesis 41:43) And he made him to ride in the second chariot which he had; and they cried before him, Bow the knee: and he made him ruler over all the land of Egypt.

(Genesis 41:44) And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, I am Pharaoh, and without thee shall no man lift up his hand or foot in all the land of Egypt.

(Genesis 41:45) And Pharaoh called Joseph's name Zaphnathpaaneah; and he gave him to wife Asenath the daughter of Potipherah priest of On. And Joseph went out over all the land of Egypt.

(Genesis 41:46) And Joseph was thirty years old when he stood before Pharaoh king of Egypt. And Joseph went out from the presence of Pharaoh, and went throughout all the land of Egypt.

(Genesis 41:47) And in the seven plenteous years the earth brought forth by handfuls.

(Genesis 41:48) And he gathered up all the food of the seven years, which were in the land of Egypt, and laid up the food in the cities: the food of the field, which was round about every city, laid he up in the same.

(Genesis 41:49) And Joseph gathered corn as the sand of the sea, very much, until he left numbering; for it was without number.

(Genesis 41:50) And unto Joseph were born two sons before the years of famine came, which Asenath the daughter of Potipherah priest of On bare unto him.

(Genesis 41:51) And Joseph called the name of the firstborn Manasseh: For God, said he, hath made me forget all my toil, and all my father's house.

(Genesis 41:52) And the name of the second called he Ephraim: For God hath caused me to be fruitful in the land of my affliction.

(Genesis 41:53) And the seven years of plenteousness, that was in the land of Egypt, were ended.

(Genesis 41:54) And the seven years of dearth began to come, according as Joseph had said: and the dearth was in all lands; but in all the land of Egypt there was bread.

(Genesis 41:55) And when all the land of Egypt was famished, the people cried to Pharaoh for bread: and Pharaoh said unto all the Egyptians, Go unto Joseph; what he saith to you, do.

(Genesis 41:56) And the famine was over all the face of the earth: And Joseph opened all the storehouses, and sold unto the Egyptians; and the famine waxed sore in the land of Egypt.

(Genesis 41:57) And all countries came into Egypt to Joseph for to buy corn; because that the famine was so sore in all lands.

(Genesis 42:1) Now when Jacob saw that there was corn in Egypt, Jacob said unto his sons, Why do ye look one upon another?

(Genesis 42:2) And he said, Behold, I have heard that there is corn in Egypt: get you down thither, and buy for us from thence; that we may live, and not die.

(Genesis 42:3) And Joseph's ten brethren went down to buy corn in Egypt.

(Genesis 42:4) But Benjamin, Joseph's brother, Jacob sent not with his brethren; for he said, Lest peradventure mischief befall him.

(Genesis 42:5) And the sons of Israel came to buy corn among those that came: for the famine was in the land of Canaan.

(Genesis 42:6) And Joseph was the governor over the land, and he it was that sold to all the people of the land: and Joseph's brethren came, and bowed down themselves before him with their faces to the earth.

(Genesis 42:7) And Joseph saw his brethren, and he knew them, but made himself strange unto them, and spake roughly unto them; and he said unto them, Whence come ye? And they said, From the land of Canaan to buy food.

(Genesis 42:8) And Joseph knew his brethren, but they knew not him.

(Genesis 42:9) And Joseph remembered the dreams which he dreamed of them, and said unto them, Ye are spies; to see the nakedness of the land ye are come.

(Genesis 42:10) And they said unto him, Nay, my lord, but to buy food are thy servants come.

(Genesis 42:11) We are all one man's sons; we are true men, thy servants are no spies.

(Genesis 42:12) And he said unto them, Nay, but to see the nakedness of the land ye are come.

(Genesis 42:13) And they said, Thy servants are twelve brethren, the sons of one man in the land of Canaan; and, behold, the youngest is this day with our father, and one is not.

(Genesis 42:14) And Joseph said unto them, That is it that I spake unto you, saying, Ye are spies:

(Genesis 42:15) Hereby ye shall be proved: By the life of Pharaoh ye shall not go forth hence, except your youngest brother come hither.

(Genesis 42:16) Send one of you, and let him fetch your brother, and ye shall be kept in prison, that your words may be proved, whether there be any truth in you: or else by the life of Pharaoh surely ye are spies.

(Genesis 42:17) And he put them all together into ward three days.

(Genesis 42:18) And Joseph said unto them the third day, This do, and live; for I fear God:

(Genesis 42:19) If ye be true men, let one of your brethren be bound in the house of your prison: go ye, carry corn for the famine of your houses:

(Genesis 42:20) But bring your youngest brother unto me; so shall your words be verified, and ye shall not die. And they did so.

(Genesis 42:21) And they said one to another, We are verily guilty concerning our brother, in that we saw the anguish of his soul, when he besought us, and we would not hear; therefore is this distress come upon us.

(Genesis 42:22) And Reuben answered them, saying, Spake I not unto you, saying, Do not sin against the child; and ye would not hear? therefore, behold, also his blood is required.

(Genesis 42:23) And they knew not that Joseph understood them; for he spake unto them by an interpreter.

(Genesis 42:24) And he turned himself about from them, and wept; and returned to them again, and communed with them, and took from them Simeon, and bound him before their eyes.

(Genesis 42:25) Then Joseph commanded to fill their sacks with corn, and to restore every man's money into his sack, and to give them provision for the way: and thus did he unto them.

(Genesis 42:26) And they laded their asses with the corn, and departed thence.

(Genesis 42:27) And as one of them opened his sack to give his ass provender in the inn, he espied his money; for, behold, it was in his sack's mouth.

(Genesis 42:28) And he said unto his brethren, My money is restored; and, lo, it is even in my sack: and their heart failed them, and they were afraid, saying one to another, What is this that God hath done unto us?

(Genesis 42:29) And they came unto Jacob their father unto the land of Canaan, and told him all that befell unto them; saying,

(Genesis 42:30) The man, who is the lord of the land, spake roughly to us, and took us for spies of the country.

(Genesis 42:31) And we said unto him, We are true men; we are no spies:

(Genesis 42:32) We be twelve brethren, sons of our father; one is not, and the youngest is this day with our father in the land of Canaan.

(Genesis 42:33) And the man, the lord of the country, said unto us, Hereby shall I know that ye are true men; leave one of your brethren here with me, and take food for the famine of your households, and be gone:

(Genesis 42:34) And bring your youngest brother unto me: then shall I know that ye are no spies, but that ye are true men: so will I deliver you your brother, and ye shall traffick in the land.

(Genesis 42:35) And it came to pass as they emptied their sacks, that, behold, every man's bundle of money was in his sack: and when both they and their father saw the bundles of money, they were afraid.

(Genesis 42:36) And Jacob their father said unto them, Me have ye bereaved of my children: Joseph is not, and Simeon is not, and ye will take Benjamin away: all these things are against me.

(Genesis 42:37) And Reuben spake unto his father, saying, Slay my two sons, if I bring him not to thee: deliver him into my hand, and I will bring him to thee again.

(Genesis 42:38) And he said, My son shall not go down with you; for his brother is dead, and he is left alone: if mischief befall him by the way in the which ye go, then shall ye bring down my gray hairs with sorrow to the grave.

(Genesis 43:1) And the famine was sore in the land.

(Genesis 43:2) And it came to pass, when they had eaten up the corn which they had brought out of Egypt, their father said unto them, Go again, buy us a little food.

(Genesis 43:3) And Judah spake unto him, saying, The man did solemnly protest unto us, saying, Ye shall not see my face, except your brother be with you.

(Genesis 43:4) If thou wilt send our brother with us, we will go down and buy thee food:

(Genesis 43:5) But if thou wilt not send him, we will not go down: for the man said unto us, Ye shall not see my face, except your brother be with you.

(Genesis 43:6) And Israel said, Wherefore dealt ye so ill with me, as to tell the man whether ye had yet a brother?

(Genesis 43:7) And they said, The man asked us straitly of our state, and of our kindred, saying, Is your father yet alive? have ye another brother? and we told him according to the tenor of these words: could we certainly know that he would say, Bring your brother down?

(Genesis 43:8) And Judah said unto Israel his father, Send the lad with me, and we will arise and go; that we may live, and not die, both we, and thou, and also our little ones.

(Genesis 43:9) I will be surety for him; of my hand shalt thou require him: if I bring him not unto thee, and set him before thee, then let me bear the blame for ever:

(Genesis 43:10) For except we had lingered, surely now we had returned this second time.

(Genesis 43:11) And their father Israel said unto them, If it must be so now, do this; take of the best fruits in the land in your vessels, and carry down the man a present, a little balm, and a little honey, spices, and myrrh, nuts, and almonds:

(Genesis 43:12) And take double money in your hand; and the money that was brought again in the mouth of your sacks, carry it again in your hand; peradventure it was an oversight:

(Genesis 43:13) Take also your brother, and arise, go again unto the man:

(Genesis 43:14) And God Almighty give you mercy before the man, that he may send away your other brother, and Benjamin. If I be bereaved of my children, I am bereaved.

(Genesis 43:15) And the men took that present, and they took double money in their hand, and Benjamin; and rose up, and went down to Egypt, and stood before Joseph.

(Genesis 43:16) And when Joseph saw Benjamin with them, he said to the ruler of his house, Bring these men home, and slay, and make ready; for these men shall dine with me at noon.

(Genesis 43:17) And the man did as Joseph bade; and the man brought the men into Joseph's house.

(Genesis 43:18) And the men were afraid, because they were brought into Joseph's house; and they said, Because of the money that was returned in our sacks at the first time are we brought in; that he may seek occasion against us, and fall upon us, and take us for bondmen, and our asses.

(Genesis 43:19) And they came near to the steward of Joseph's house, and they communed with him at the door of the house,

(Genesis 43:20) And said, O sir, we came indeed down at the first time to buy food:

(Genesis 43:21) And it came to pass, when we came to the inn, that we opened our sacks, and, behold, every man's money was in the mouth of his sack, our money in full weight: and we have brought it again in our hand.

(Genesis 43:22) And other money have we brought down in our hands to buy food: we cannot tell who put our money in our sacks.

(Genesis 43:23) And he said, Peace be to you, fear not: your God, and the God of your father, hath given you treasure in your sacks: I had your money. And he brought Simeon out unto them.

(Genesis 43:24) And the man brought the men into Joseph's house, and gave them water, and they washed their feet; and he gave their asses provender.

(Genesis 43:25) And they made ready the present against Joseph came at noon: for they heard that they should eat bread there.

(Genesis 43:26) And when Joseph came home, they brought him the present which was in their hand into the house, and bowed themselves to him to the earth.

(Genesis 43:27) And he asked them of their welfare, and said, Is your father well, the old man of whom ye spake? Is he yet alive?

(Genesis 43:28) And they answered, Thy servant our father is in good health, he is yet alive. And they bowed down their heads, and made obeisance.

(Genesis 43:29) And he lifted up his eyes, and saw his brother Benjamin, his mother's son, and said, Is this your younger brother, of whom ye spake unto me? And he said, God be gracious unto thee, my son.

(Genesis 43:30) And Joseph made haste; for his bowels did yearn upon his brother: and he sought where to weep; and he entered into his chamber, and wept there.

(Genesis 43:31) And he washed his face, and went out, and refrained himself, and said, Set on bread.

(Genesis 43:32) And they set on for him by himself, and for them by themselves, and for the Egyptians, which did eat with him, by themselves: because the Egyptians might not eat bread with the Hebrews; for that is an abomination unto the Egyptians.

(Genesis 43:33) And they sat before him, the firstborn according to his birthright, and the youngest according to his youth: and the men marvelled one at another.

(Genesis 43:34) And he took and sent messes unto them from before him: but Benjamin's mess was five times so much as any of theirs. And they drank, and were merry with him.

(Genesis 44:1) And he commanded the steward of his house, saying, Fill the men's sacks with food, as much as they can carry, and put every man's money in his sack's mouth.

(Genesis 44:2) And put my cup, the silver cup, in the sack's mouth of the youngest, and his corn money. And he did according to the word that Joseph had spoken.

(Genesis 44:3) As soon as the morning was light, the men were sent away, they and their asses.

(Genesis 44:4) And when they were gone out of the city, and not yet far off, Joseph said unto his steward, Up, follow after the men; and when thou dost overtake them, say unto them, Wherefore have ye rewarded evil for good?

(Genesis 44:5) Is not this it in which my lord drinketh, and whereby indeed he divineth? ye have done evil in so doing.

(Genesis 44:6) And he overtook them, and he spake unto them these same words.

(Genesis 44:7) And they said unto him, Wherefore saith my lord these words? God forbid that thy servants should do according to this thing:

(Genesis 44:8) Behold, the money, which we found in our sacks' mouths, we brought again unto thee out of the land of Canaan: how then should we steal out of thy lord's house silver or gold?

(Genesis 44:9) With whomsoever of thy servants it be found, both let him die, and we also will be my lord's bondmen.

(Genesis 44:10) And he said, Now also let it be according unto your words: he with whom it is found shall be my servant; and ye shall be blameless.

(Genesis 44:11) Then they speedily took down every man his sack to the ground, and opened every man his sack.

(Genesis 44:12) And he searched, and began at the eldest, and left at the youngest: and the cup was found in Benjamin's sack.

(Genesis 44:13) Then they rent their clothes, and laded every man his ass, and returned to the city.

(Genesis 44:14) And Judah and his brethren came to Joseph's house; for he was yet there: and they fell before him on the ground.

(Genesis 44:15) And Joseph said unto them, What deed is this that ye have done? wot ye not that such a man as I can certainly divine?

(Genesis 44:16) And Judah said, What shall we say unto my lord? what shall we speak? or how shall we clear ourselves? God hath found out the iniquity of thy servants: behold, we are my lord's servants, both we, and he also with whom the cup is found.

(Genesis 44:17) And he said, God forbid that I should do so: but the man in whose hand the cup is found, he shall be my servant; and as for you, get you up in peace unto your father.

(Genesis 44:18) Then Judah came near unto him, and said, Oh my lord, let thy servant, I pray thee, speak a word in my lord's ears, and let not thine anger burn against thy servant: for thou art even as Pharaoh.

(Genesis 44:19) My lord asked his servants, saying, Have ye a father, or a brother?

(Genesis 44:20) And we said unto my lord, We have a father, an old man, and a child of his old age, a little one; and his brother is dead, and he alone is left of his mother, and his father loveth him.

(Genesis 44:21) And thou saidst unto thy servants, Bring him down unto me, that I may set mine eyes upon him.

(Genesis 44:22) And we said unto my lord, The lad cannot leave his father: for if he should leave his father, his father would die.

(Genesis 44:23) And thou saidst unto thy servants, Except your youngest brother come down with you, ye shall see my face no more.

(Genesis 44:24) And it came to pass when we came up unto thy servant my father, we told him the words of my lord.

(Genesis 44:25) And our father said, Go again, and buy us a little food.

(Genesis 44:26) And we said, We cannot go down: if our youngest brother be with us, then will we go down: for we may not see the man's face, except our youngest brother be with us.

(Genesis 44:27) And thy servant my father said unto us, Ye know that my wife bare me two sons:

(Genesis 44:28) And the one went out from me, and I said, Surely he is torn in pieces; and I saw him not since:

(Genesis 44:29) And if ye take this also from me, and mischief befall him, ye shall bring down my gray hairs with sorrow to the grave.

(Genesis 44:30) Now therefore when I come to thy servant my father, and the lad be not with us; seeing that his life is bound up in the lad's life;

(Genesis 44:31) It shall come to pass, when he seeth that the lad is not with us, that he will die: and thy servants shall bring down the gray hairs of thy servant our father with sorrow to the grave.

(Genesis 44:32) For thy servant became surety for the lad unto my father, saying, If I bring him not unto thee, then I shall bear the blame to my father for ever.

(Genesis 44:33) Now therefore, I pray thee, let thy servant abide instead of the lad a bondman to my lord; and let the lad go up with his brethren.

(Genesis 44:34) For how shall I go up to my father, and the lad be not with me? lest peradventure I see the evil that shall come on my father.

(Genesis 45:1) Then Joseph could not refrain himself before all them that stood by him; and he cried, Cause every man to go out from me. And there stood no man with him, while Joseph made himself known unto his brethren.

(Genesis 45:2) And he wept aloud: and the Egyptians and the house of Pharaoh heard.

(Genesis 45:3) And Joseph said unto his brethren, I am Joseph; doth my father yet live? And his brethren could not answer him; for they were troubled at his presence.

(Genesis 45:4) And Joseph said unto his brethren, Come near to me, I pray you. And they came near. And he said, I am Joseph your brother, whom ye sold into Egypt.

(Genesis 45:5) Now therefore be not grieved, nor angry with yourselves, that ye sold me hither: for God did send me before you to preserve life.

(Genesis 45:6) For these two years hath the famine been in the land: and yet there are five years, in the which there shall neither be earing nor harvest.

(Genesis 45:7) And God sent me before you to preserve you a posterity in the earth, and to save your lives by a great deliverance.

(Genesis 45:8) So now it was not you that sent me hither, but God: and he hath made me a father to Pharaoh, and lord of all his house, and a ruler throughout all the land of Egypt.

(Genesis 45:9) Haste ye, and go up to my father, and say unto him, Thus saith thy son Joseph, God hath made me lord of all Egypt: come down unto me, tarry not:

(Genesis 45:10) And thou shalt dwell in the land of Goshen, and thou shalt be near unto me, thou, and thy children, and thy children's children, and thy flocks, and thy herds, and all that thou hast:

(Genesis 45:11) And there will I nourish thee; for yet there are five years of famine; lest thou, and thy household, and all that thou hast, come to poverty.

(Genesis 45:12) And, behold, your eyes see, and the eyes of my brother Benjamin, that it is my mouth that speaketh unto you.

(Genesis 45:13) And ye shall tell my father of all my glory in Egypt, and of all that ye have seen; and ye shall haste and bring down my father hither.

(Genesis 45:14) And he fell upon his brother Benjamin's neck, and wept; and Benjamin wept upon his neck.

(Genesis 45:15) Moreover he kissed all his brethren, and wept upon them: and after that his brethren talked with him.

(Genesis 45:16) And the fame thereof was heard in Pharaoh's house, saying, Joseph's brethren are come: and it pleased Pharaoh well, and his servants.

(Genesis 45:17) And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, Say unto thy brethren, This do ye; lade your beasts, and go, get you unto the land of Canaan;

(Genesis 45:18) And take your father and your households, and come unto me: and I will give you the good of the land of Egypt, and ye shall eat the fat of the land.

(Genesis 45:19) Now thou art commanded, this do ye; take you wagons out of the land of Egypt for your little ones, and for your wives, and bring your father, and come.

(Genesis 45:20) Also regard not your stuff; for the good of all the land of Egypt is yours.

(Genesis 45:21) And the children of Israel did so: and Joseph gave them wagons, according to the commandment of Pharaoh, and gave them provision for the way.

(Genesis 45:22) To all of them he gave each man changes of raiment; but to Benjamin he gave three hundred pieces of silver, and five changes of raiment.

(Genesis 45:23) And to his father he sent after this manner; ten asses laden with the good things of Egypt, and ten she asses laden with corn and bread and meat for his father by the way.

(Genesis 45:24) So he sent his brethren away, and they departed: and he said unto them, See that ye fall not out by the way.

(Genesis 45:25) And they went up out of Egypt, and came into the land of Canaan unto Jacob their father,

(Genesis 45:26) And told him, saying, Joseph is yet alive, and he is governor over all the land of Egypt. And Jacob's heart fainted, for he believed them not.

(Genesis 45:27) And they told him all the words of Joseph, which he had said unto them: and when he saw the wagons which Joseph had sent to carry him, the spirit of Jacob their father revived:

(Genesis 45:28) And Israel said, It is enough; Joseph my son is yet alive: I will go and see him before I die.

(Genesis 46:1) And Israel took his journey with all that he had, and came to Beersheba, and offered sacrifices unto the God of his father Isaac.

(Genesis 46:2) And God spake unto Israel in the visions of the night, and said, Jacob, Jacob. And he said, Here am I.

(Genesis 46:3) And he said, I am God, the God of thy father: fear not to go down into Egypt; for I will there make of thee a great nation:

(Genesis 46:4) I will go down with thee into Egypt; and I will also surely bring thee up again: and Joseph shall put his hand upon thine eyes.

(Genesis 46:5) And Jacob rose up from Beersheba: and the sons of Israel carried Jacob their father, and their little ones, and their wives, in the wagons which Pharaoh had sent to carry him.

(Genesis 46:6) And they took their cattle, and their goods, which they had gotten in the land of Canaan, and came into Egypt, Jacob, and all his seed with him:

(Genesis 46:7) His sons, and his sons' sons with him, his daughters, and his sons' daughters, and all his seed brought he with him into Egypt.

(Genesis 46:8) And these are the names of the children of Israel, which came into Egypt, Jacob and his sons: Reuben, Jacob's firstborn.

(Genesis 46:9) And the sons of Reuben; Hanoch, and Phallu, and Hezron, and Carmi.

(Genesis 46:10) And the sons of Simeon; Jemuel, and Jamin, and Ohad, and Jachin, and Zohar, and Shaul the son of a Canaanitish woman.

(Genesis 46:11) And the sons of Levi; Gershon, Kohath, and Merari.

(Genesis 46:12) And the sons of Judah; Er, and Onan, and Shelah, and Pharez, and Zarah: but Er and Onan died in the land of Canaan. And the sons of Pharez were Hezron and Hamul.

(Genesis 46:13) And the sons of Issachar; Tola, and Phuvah, and Job, and Shimron.

(Genesis 46:14) And the sons of Zebulun; Sered, and Elon, and Jahleel.

(Genesis 46:15) These be the sons of Leah, which she bare unto Jacob in Padanaram, with his daughter Dinah: all the souls of his sons and his daughters were thirty and three.

(Genesis 46:16) And the sons of Gad; Ziphion, and Haggi, Shuni, and Ezbon, Eri, and Arodi, and Areli.

(Genesis 46:17) And the sons of Asher; Jimnah, and Ishuah, and Isui, and Beriah, and Serah their sister: and the sons of Beriah; Heber, and Malchiel.

(Genesis 46:18) These are the sons of Zilpah, whom Laban gave to Leah his daughter, and these she bare unto Jacob, even sixteen souls.

(Genesis 46:19) The sons of Rachel Jacob's wife; Joseph, and Benjamin.

(Genesis 46:20) And unto Joseph in the land of Egypt were born Manasseh and Ephraim, which Asenath the daughter of Potipherah priest of On bare unto him.

(Genesis 46:21) And the sons of Benjamin were Belah, and Becher, and Ashbel, Gera, and Naaman, Ehi, and Rosh, Muppim, and Huppim, and Ard.

(Genesis 46:22) These are the sons of Rachel, which were born to Jacob: all the souls were fourteen.

(Genesis 46:23) And the sons of Dan; Hushim.

(Genesis 46:24) And the sons of Naphtali; Jahzeel, and Guni, and Jezer, and Shillem.

(Genesis 46:25) These are the sons of Bilhah, which Laban gave unto Rachel his daughter, and she bare these unto Jacob: all the souls were seven.

(Genesis 46:26) All the souls that came with Jacob into Egypt, which came out of his loins, besides Jacob's sons' wives, all the souls were threescore and six;

(Genesis 46:27) And the sons of Joseph, which were born him in Egypt, were two souls: all the souls of the house of Jacob, which came into Egypt, were threescore and ten.

(Genesis 46:28) And he sent Judah before him unto Joseph, to direct his face unto Goshen; and they came into the land of Goshen.

(Genesis 46:29) And Joseph made ready his chariot, and went up to meet Israel his father, to Goshen, and presented himself unto him; and he fell on his neck, and wept on his neck a good while.

(Genesis 46:30) And Israel said unto Joseph, Now let me die, since I have seen thy face, because thou art yet alive.

(Genesis 46:31) And Joseph said unto his brethren, and unto his father's house, I will go up, and shew Pharaoh, and say unto him, My brethren, and my father's house, which were in the land of Canaan, are come unto me;

(Genesis 46:32) And the men are shepherds, for their trade hath been to feed cattle; and they have brought their flocks, and their herds, and all that they have.

(Genesis 46:33) And it shall come to pass, when Pharaoh shall call you, and shall say, What is your occupation?

(Genesis 46:34) That ye shall say, Thy servants' trade hath been about cattle from our youth even until now, both we, and also our fathers: that ye may dwell in the land of Goshen; for every shepherd is an abomination unto the Egyptians.

(Genesis 47:1) Then Joseph came and told Pharaoh, and said, My father and my brethren, and their flocks, and their herds, and all that they have, are come out of the land of Canaan; and, behold, they are in the land of Goshen.

(Genesis 47:2) And he took some of his brethren, even five men, and presented them unto Pharaoh.

(Genesis 47:3) And Pharaoh said unto his brethren, What is your occupation? And they said unto Pharaoh, Thy servants are shepherds, both we, and also our fathers.

(Genesis 47:4) They said moreover unto Pharaoh, For to sojourn in the land are we come; for thy servants have no pasture for their flocks; for the famine is sore in the land of Canaan: now therefore, we pray thee, let thy servants dwell in the land of Goshen.

(Genesis 47:5) And Pharaoh spake unto Joseph, saying, Thy father and thy brethren are come unto thee:

(Genesis 47:6) The land of Egypt is before thee; in the best of the land make thy father and brethren to dwell; in the land of Goshen let them dwell: and if thou knowest any men of activity among them, then make them rulers over my cattle.

(Genesis 47:7) And Joseph brought in Jacob his father, and set him before Pharaoh: and Jacob blessed Pharaoh.

(Genesis 47:8) And Pharaoh said unto Jacob, How old art thou?

(Genesis 47:9) And Jacob said unto Pharaoh, The days of the years of my pilgrimage are an hundred and thirty years: few and evil have the days of the years of my life been, and have not attained unto the days of the years of the life of my fathers in the days of their pilgrimage.

(Genesis 47:10) And Jacob blessed Pharaoh, and went out from before Pharaoh.

(Genesis 47:11) And Joseph placed his father and his brethren, and gave them a possession in the land of Egypt, in the best of the land, in the land of Rameses, as Pharaoh had commanded.

(Genesis 47:12) And Joseph nourished his father, and his brethren, and all his father's household, with bread, according to their families.

(Genesis 47:13) And there was no bread in all the land; for the famine was very sore, so that the land of Egypt and all the land of Canaan fainted by reason of the famine.

(Genesis 47:14) And Joseph gathered up all the money that was found in the land of Egypt, and in the land of Canaan, for the corn which they bought: and Joseph brought the money into Pharaoh's house.

(Genesis 47:15) And when money failed in the land of Egypt, and in the land of Canaan, all the Egyptians came unto Joseph, and said, Give us bread: for why should we die in thy presence? for the money faileth.

(Genesis 47:16) And Joseph said, Give your cattle; and I will give you for your cattle, if money fail.

(Genesis 47:17) And they brought their cattle unto Joseph: and Joseph gave them bread in exchange for horses, and for the flocks, and for the cattle of the herds, and for the asses: and he fed them with bread for all their cattle for that year.

(Genesis 47:18) When that year was ended, they came unto him the second year, and said unto him, We will not hide it from my lord, how that our money is spent; my lord also hath our herds of cattle; there is not ought left in the sight of my lord, but our bodies, and our lands:

(Genesis 47:19) Wherefore shall we die before thine eyes, both we and our land? buy us and our land for bread, and we and our land will be servants unto Pharaoh: and give us seed, that we may live, and not die, that the land be not desolate.

(Genesis 47:20) And Joseph bought all the land of Egypt for Pharaoh; for the Egyptians sold every man his field, because the famine prevailed over them: so the land became Pharaoh's.

(Genesis 47:21) And as for the people, he removed them to cities from one end of the borders of Egypt even to the other end thereof.

(Genesis 47:22) Only the land of the priests bought he not; for the priests had a portion assigned them of Pharaoh, and did eat their portion which Pharaoh gave them: wherefore they sold not their lands.

(Genesis 47:23) Then Joseph said unto the people, Behold, I have bought you this day and your land for Pharaoh: lo, here is seed for you, and ye shall sow the land.

(Genesis 47:24) And it shall come to pass in the increase, that ye shall give the fifth part unto Pharaoh, and four parts shall be your own, for seed of the field, and for your food, and for them of your households, and for food for your little ones.

(Genesis 47:25) And they said, Thou hast saved our lives: let us find grace in the sight of my lord, and we will be Pharaoh's servants.

(Genesis 47:26) And Joseph made it a law over the land of Egypt unto this day, that Pharaoh should have the fifth part; except the land of the priests only, which became not Pharaoh's.

(Genesis 47:27) And Israel dwelt in the land of Egypt, in the country of Goshen; and they had possessions therein, and grew, and multiplied exceedingly.

(Genesis 47:28) And Jacob lived in the land of Egypt seventeen years: so the whole age of Jacob was an hundred forty and seven years.

(Genesis 47:29) And the time drew nigh that Israel must die: and he called his son Joseph, and said unto him, If now I have found grace in thy sight, put, I pray thee, thy hand under my thigh, and deal kindly and truly with me; bury me not, I pray thee, in Egypt:

(Genesis 47:30) But I will lie with my fathers, and thou shalt carry me out of Egypt, and bury me in their buryingplace. And he said, I will do as thou hast said.

(Genesis 47:31) And he said, Swear unto me. And he sware unto him. And Israel bowed himself upon the bed's head.

(Genesis 48:1) And it came to pass after these things, that one told Joseph, Behold, thy father is sick: and he took with him his two sons, Manasseh and Ephraim.

(Genesis 48:2) And one told Jacob, and said, Behold, thy son Joseph cometh unto thee: and Israel strengthened himself, and sat upon the bed.

(Genesis 48:3) And Jacob said unto Joseph, God Almighty appeared unto me at Luz in the land of Canaan, and blessed me,

(Genesis 48:4) And said unto me, Behold, I will make thee fruitful, and multiply thee, and I will make of thee a multitude of people; and will give this land to thy seed after thee for an everlasting possession.

(Genesis 48:5) And now thy two sons, Ephraim and Manasseh, which were born unto thee in the land of Egypt before I came unto thee into Egypt, are mine; as Reuben and Simeon, they shall be mine.

(Genesis 48:6) And thy issue, which thou begettest after them, shall be thine, and shall be called after the name of their brethren in their inheritance.

(Genesis 48:7) And as for me, when I came from Padan, Rachel died by me in the land of Canaan in the way, when yet there was but a little way to come unto Ephrath: and I buried her there in the way of Ephrath; the same is Bethlehem.

(Genesis 48:8) And Israel beheld Joseph's sons, and said, Who are these?

(Genesis 48:9) And Joseph said unto his father, They are my sons, whom God hath given me in this place. And he said, Bring them, I pray thee, unto me, and I will bless them.

(Genesis 48:10) Now the eyes of Israel were dim for age, so that he could not see. And he brought them near unto him; and he kissed them, and embraced them.

(Genesis 48:11) And Israel said unto Joseph, I had not thought to see thy face: and, lo, God hath shewed me also thy seed.

(Genesis 48:12) And Joseph brought them out from between his knees, and he bowed himself with his face to the earth.

(Genesis 48:13) And Joseph took them both, Ephraim in his right hand toward Israel's left hand, and Manasseh in his left hand toward Israel's right hand, and brought them near unto him.

(Genesis 48:14) And Israel stretched out his right hand, and laid it upon Ephraim's head, who was the younger, and his left hand upon Manasseh's head, guiding his hands wittingly; for Manasseh was the firstborn.

(Genesis 48:15) And he blessed Joseph, and said, God, before whom my fathers Abraham and Isaac did walk, the God which fed me all my life long unto this day,

(Genesis 48:16) The Angel which redeemed me from all evil, bless the lads; and let my name be named on them, and the name of my fathers Abraham and Isaac; and let them grow into a multitude in the midst of the earth.

(Genesis 48:17) And when Joseph saw that his father laid his right hand upon the head of Ephraim, it displeased him: and he held up his father's hand, to remove it from Ephraim's head unto Manasseh's head.

(Genesis 48:18) And Joseph said unto his father, Not so, my father: for this is the firstborn; put thy right hand upon his head.

(Genesis 48:19) And his father refused, and said, I know it, my son, I know it: he also shall become a people, and he also shall be great: but truly his younger brother shall be greater than he, and his seed shall become a multitude of nations.

(Genesis 48:20) And he blessed them that day, saying, In thee shall Israel bless, saying, God make thee as Ephraim and as Manasseh: and he set Ephraim before Manasseh.

(Genesis 48:21) And Israel said unto Joseph, Behold, I die: but God shall be with you, and bring you again unto the land of your fathers.

(Genesis 48:22) Moreover I have given to thee one portion above thy brethren, which I took out of the hand of the Amorite with my sword and with my bow.

(Genesis 49:1) And Jacob called unto his sons, and said, Gather yourselves together, that I may tell you that which shall befall you in the last days.

(Genesis 49:2) Gather yourselves together, and hear, ye sons of Jacob; and hearken unto Israel your father.

(Genesis 49:3) Reuben, thou art my firstborn, my might, and the beginning of my strength, the excellency of dignity, and the excellency of power:

(Genesis 49:4) Unstable as water, thou shalt not excel; because thou wentest up to thy father's bed; then defiledst thou it: he went up to my couch.

(Genesis 49:5) Simeon and Levi are brethren; instruments of cruelty are in their habitations.

(Genesis 49:6) O my soul, come not thou into their secret; unto their assembly, mine honour, be not thou united: for in their anger they slew a man, and in their selfwill they digged down a wall.

(Genesis 49:7) Cursed be their anger, for it was fierce; and their wrath, for it was cruel: I will divide them in Jacob, and scatter them in Israel.

(Genesis 49:8) Judah, thou art he whom thy brethren shall praise: thy hand shall be in the neck of thine enemies; thy father's children shall bow down before thee.

(Genesis 49:9) Judah is a lion's whelp [cub]: from the prey, my son, thou art gone up: he stooped down, he couched as a lion, and as an old lion; who shall rouse him up?

Judah is the lion's cub; his descendant, Jesus, is the Lion of the tribe of Judah.This is not the only example of Jesus as a descendant of someone being before them.

(Genesis 49:10) The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh come; and unto him shall the gathering of the people be.

(Genesis 49:11) Binding his foal unto the vine, and his ass's colt unto the choice vine; he washed his garments in wine, and his clothes in the blood of grapes:

(Genesis 49:12) His eyes shall be red with wine, and his teeth white with milk.

(Genesis 49:13) Zebulun shall dwell at the haven of the sea; and he shall be for an haven of ships; and his border shall be unto Zidon.

(Genesis 49:14) Issachar is a strong ass couching down between two burdens:

(Genesis 49:15) And he saw that rest was good, and the land that it was pleasant; and bowed his shoulder to bear, and became a servant unto tribute.

(Genesis 49:16) Dan shall judge his people, as one of the tribes of Israel.

(Genesis 49:17) Dan shall be a serpent by the way, an adder in the path, that biteth the horse heels, so that his rider shall fall backward.

(Genesis 49:18) I have waited for thy salvation, O LORD.

(Genesis 49:19) Gad, a troop shall overcome him: but he shall overcome at the last.

(Genesis 49:20) Out of Asher his bread shall be fat, and he shall yield royal dainties.

(Genesis 49:21) Naphtali is a hind let loose: he giveth goodly words.

(Genesis 49:22) Joseph is a fruitful bough, even a fruitful bough by a well; whose branches run over the wall:

(Genesis 49:23) The archers have sorely grieved him, and shot at him, and hated him:

(Genesis 49:24) But his bow abode in strength, and the arms of his hands were made strong by the hands of the mighty God of Jacob; (from thence is the shepherd, the stone of Israel:)

(Genesis 49:25) Even by the God of thy father, who shall help thee; and by the Almighty, who shall bless thee with blessings of heaven above, blessings of the deep that lieth under, blessings of the breasts, and of the womb:

(Genesis 49:26) The blessings of thy father have prevailed above the blessings of my progenitors unto the utmost bound of the everlasting hills: they shall be on the head of Joseph, and on the crown of the head of him that was separate from his brethren.

(Genesis 49:27) Benjamin shall ravin as a wolf: in the morning he shall devour the prey, and at night he shall divide the spoil.

(Genesis 49:28) All these are the twelve tribes of Israel: and this is it that their father spake unto them, and blessed them; every one according to his blessing he blessed them.

(Genesis 49:29) And he charged them, and said unto them, I am to be gathered unto my people: bury me with my fathers in the cave that is in the field of Ephron the Hittite,

(Genesis 49:30) In the cave that is in the field of Machpelah, which is before Mamre, in the land of Canaan, which Abraham bought with the field of Ephron the Hittite for a possession of a buryingplace.

(Genesis 49:31) There they buried Abraham and Sarah his wife; there they buried Isaac and Rebekah his wife; and there I buried Leah.

(Genesis 49:32) The purchase of the field and of the cave that is therein was from the children of Heth.

(Genesis 49:33) And when Jacob had made an end of commanding his sons, he gathered up his feet into the bed, and yielded up the ghost, and was gathered unto his people.

At death Jacob entered into sheol where he met with all those who had died before him.

(Genesis 50:1) And Joseph fell upon his father's face, and wept upon him, and kissed him.

(Genesis 50:2) And Joseph commanded his servants the physicians to embalm his father: and the physicians embalmed Israel.

(Genesis 50:3) And forty days were fulfilled for him; for so are fulfilled the days of those which are embalmed: and the Egyptians mourned for him threescore and ten days.

(Genesis 50:4) And when the days of his mourning were past, Joseph spake unto the house of Pharaoh, saying, If now I have found grace in your eyes, speak, I pray you, in the ears of Pharaoh, saying,

(Genesis 50:5) My father made me swear, saying, Lo, I die: in my grave which I have digged for me in the land of Canaan, there shalt thou bury me. Now therefore let me go up, I pray thee, and bury my father, and I will come again.

(Genesis 50:6) And Pharaoh said, Go up, and bury thy father, according as he made thee swear.

(Genesis 50:7) And Joseph went up to bury his father: and with him went up all the servants of Pharaoh, the elders of his house, and all the elders of the land of Egypt,

(Genesis 50:8) And all the house of Joseph, and his brethren, and his father's house: only their little ones, and their flocks, and their herds, they left in the land of Goshen.

(Genesis 50:9) And there went up with him both chariots and horsemen: and it was a very great company.

(Genesis 50:10) And they came to the threshingfloor of Atad, which is beyond Jordan, and there they mourned with a great and very sore lamentation: and he made a mourning for his father seven days.

(Genesis 50:11) And when the inhabitants of the land, the Canaanites, saw the mourning in the floor of Atad, they said, This is a grievous mourning to the Egyptians: wherefore the name of it was called Abelmizraim, which is beyond Jordan.

(Genesis 50:12) And his sons did unto him according as he commanded them:

(Genesis 50:13) For his sons carried him into the land of Canaan, and buried him in the cave of the field of Machpelah, which Abraham bought with the field for a possession of a buryingplace of Ephron the Hittite, before Mamre.

(Genesis 50:14) And Joseph returned into Egypt, he, and his brethren, and all that went up with him to bury his father, after he had buried his father.

(Genesis 50:15) And when Joseph's brethren saw that their father was dead, they said, Joseph will peradventure hate us, and will certainly requite us all the evil which we did unto him.

(Genesis 50:16) And they sent a messenger unto Joseph, saying, Thy father did command before he died, saying,

(Genesis 50:17) So shall ye say unto Joseph, Forgive, I pray thee now, the trespass of thy brethren, and their sin; for they did unto thee evil: and now, we pray thee, forgive the trespass of the servants of the God of thy father. And Joseph wept when they spake unto him.

(Genesis 50:18) And his brethren also went and fell down before his face; and they said, Behold, we be thy servants.

(Genesis 50:19) And Joseph said unto them, Fear not: for am I in the place of God?

(Genesis 50:20) But as for you, ye thought evil against me; but God meant it unto good, to bring to pass, as it is this day, to save much people alive.

(Genesis 50:21) Now therefore fear ye not: I will nourish you, and your little ones. And he comforted them, and spake kindly unto them.

(Genesis 50:22) And Joseph dwelt in Egypt, he, and his father's house: and Joseph lived an hundred and ten years.

(Genesis 50:23) And Joseph saw Ephraim's children of the third generation: the children also of Machir the son of Manasseh were brought up upon Joseph's knees.

(Genesis 50:24) And Joseph said unto his brethren, I die: and God will surely visit you, and bring you out of this land unto the land which he sware to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob.

(Genesis 50:25) And Joseph took an oath of the children of Israel, saying, God will surely visit you, and ye shall carry up my bones from hence.

(Genesis 50:26) So Joseph died, being an hundred and ten years old: and they embalmed him, and he was put in a coffin in Egypt.

King James Version