Bible Commentary

Themes . . .

In chapters 1 — 9 I have commented on nearly every verse. After that I comment only on verses of special interest to me.

Chapter 1 . . .

(Isaiah 1:1) The vision of Isaiah the son of Amoz, which he saw concerning Judah and Jerusalem in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah.

Isaiah's prophecies are called visions.

The historical events of Isaiah's day provide the context of his writings; much will be said about this.

Isaiah speaks to and about the southern kingdom of Judah and of Jerusalem, the spiritual focus of this nation. This kingdom stayed true to the law; at least in the externals. The northern kingdom established a counterfeit priesthood with the worship of two golden calves — they did not worship in the temple in Jerusalem as commanded by God.

The wicked, unholy, God-rejecting people . . .

(Isaiah 1:2) Hear, O heavens, and give ear, O earth: for the LORD hath spoken, I have nourished and brought up children, and they have rebelled against me.

The word "heavens" refers to the sky, stars, sun, moon, and space. The word "earth" refers to this planet we inhabit. Thus, the expression "heavens and earth" refers to this physical, material world in which we live — to the reality of our physical existence. These words of the Lord are true and real just as the universe is real and true.

As God's created creatures, we humans are his children. He provides for our needs. Isaiah is specifically referring to the nation of Israel which God founded on his promises and miraculously brought into existence.

Many of the prophecies in Isaiah tell the sad tale of humans who don't know of God and who actively rebel against him. We will see many examples of rebellious deeds, attitudes, thoughts, and words.

(Isaiah 1:3) The ox knoweth his owner, and the ass his master's crib: but Israel doth not know, my people doth not consider.

God is the master and he provides our sustenance. Many in Isaiah's day didn't understand this; it reminds me of modern day America.

(Isaiah 1:4) Ah sinful nation, a people laden with iniquity, a seed of evildoers, children that are corrupters: they have forsaken [abandoned] the LORD, they have provoked the Holy One of Israel unto anger, they are gone away backward.

God's chosen people fell into sin and iniquity. They did evil deeds and corrupted themselves and others. Often we find these two ideas intertwined: (1) of people committing sin, and (2) of people forsaking God. This is because we must forsake God in order to sin; we must violate the moral law in order to sin.

Sin causes God to become angry. Human anger is often sinful but that is because of our response to the feelings of anger and the things which provoke our anger. We often get angry at things that should not cause anger and we sin in the way we deal with this feeling.

God's anger is different. His anger is provoked by real violations of the moral law and of his commandments. He responds to this anger by righteous judgment; he does not sin in his actions.

There is another aspect to this. When we sin the judgment occurs automatically as natural consequence; God doesn't have to do anything special to judge us, it happens automatically as a result of violating his natural law. Thus, people who perform depraved deeds (and who think depraved thoughts) become depraved; this is why we should be careful about the kinds of entertainment we consume.

Wherefore God also gave them up to uncleanness through the lusts of their own hearts, to dishonour their own bodies between themselves. . . . For this cause God gave them up unto vile affections. . . . (Romans 1:24,26a)

Sin provokes anger in God because he hates sin.

Just as God's chosen nation Israel abandoned God and became wicked, so also God's church did the same. Sadly, there are many examples throughout church history of Christians (Catholic, Orthodox, Protestant) committing vile and sinful acts; sometimes in the name of Christ. But at all times there is a remnant who are righteous and who love and serve God.

In sinning we turn from God and run away from him (we go away backwards). Instead, we should turn toward him and run toward him. But this requires repentance of sin. God's holiness will not allow us to run toward him if we are living immoral and unholy lives. We are always running; either towards God or away from God.

(Isaiah 1:5) Why should ye be stricken any more? ye will revolt more and more: the whole head is sick, and the whole heart faint.

We have the image of God striking those who are evil as he punishes them. But he does not wish to do this; he prefers that they repent and live holy and righteous lives so he can bless them.

People who are rebelling against God will actively continue to do so until they finally have a conversion of heart and repent of their sinful lifestyle. Sinning is a form of spiritual sickness affecting the head and the heart — it makes us stupid and perverse.

(Isaiah 1:6) From the sole of the foot even unto the head there is no soundness in it; but wounds, and bruises, and putrifying sores: they have not been closed, neither bound up, neither mollified with ointment.

In verse 4 Isaiah refers to the nation of Israel, the southern kingdom. This nation has priests and kings as the head and the people at large as the feet; all are wicked and depraved in their various ways.

Just as a diseased body must be treated to be healed, so must Israel; but there has been no treatment. (This is why Isaiah was sent, to provide healing for those who will listen.)

I think this verse (and verse 5) is literal (in addition to having a figurative component). Just as the demons became grotesque, hideous, and disfigured by the ugliness of their sin and rebellion, likewise also do the spiritual bodies of humans. This is based on my view that we have spiritual bodies in addition to our physical bodies. The spiritual body can become diseased, ugly, and deformed — this is the basis of the many horror stores involving weird hideous humanlike creatures with obvious connections to the spirit (demonic) realm.

(Isaiah 1:7) Your country is desolate, your cities are burned with fire: your land, strangers devour it in your presence, and it is desolate, as overthrown by strangers.

Just as humans have spiritual bodies so also do nations have a spiritual manifestation. Notice in the following that there are nations and kings in the spiritual realm:

The prince of the kingdom of Persia withstood me [an angel] one and twenty days: but, lo, Michael, one of the chief princes, came to help me; and I remained there with the kings of Persia. (Daniel 10:13)

Conditions in the spiritual realm reflect conditions in the physical realm. Thus, Isaiah sees the sickness of his nation by looking at the devastation of the spiritual nation. The spiritual powers of darkness are wreaking havoc on Israel in the spiritual realm because in sinning, they have allowed the powers of darkness free reign to do as it chooses. The same thing is happening today in America.

Events of the spiritual ream prefigure those in the physical realm and so Isaiah is able to prophecy the future of Israel merely be viewing the events in the spiritual realm; this is why his prophecies are called visions. The apostle John had a similar experience in receiving the visions of the book of Revelation.

There would be a future day in Israel in which the cities were destroyed and the land devastated by oppressors. This happened to the southern kingdom several hundred years later by the Babylonians.

The cause of this judgment was the sin and wickedness of the nation, especially the leaders. When nations become immoral they become weak. The extreme materialism and unconcern for the poor and helpless in our modern world will one day result in mass famine, plague, wars, and civil wars because we greedily overconsumed the earth's natural resources (See Isaiah 5:8). In the following passages from Genesis note that God commanded humans to replenish the earth, not to exploit it; to have dominion over the animals, not to destroy them.

God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth. (Genesis 1:28; 9:1)

We are required to control our population, to provide social justice for all, to provide fair conditions for all. The strong and rich are not to exploit the poor and weak for material gain.

(Isaiah 1:8) And the daughter of Zion is left as a cottage in a vineyard, as a lodge in a garden of cucumbers, as a besieged city.

The phrase "daughter of Zion" is both figurative and literal:

The people of Israel would be abandoned by God and destroyed as he removes his protective grace from them. Our very survival depends on God's protective grace; without it we would all be overcome by the powers of darkness and end up in hell.

(Isaiah 1:9) Except the LORD of hosts had left unto us a very small remnant, we should have been as Sodom, and we should have been like unto Gomorrah.

The people of Sodom and Gomorrah were all destroyed except for Lot and his immediate believing family who were spared. During the Babylonian invasion of Israel two hundred years after Isaiah's day some of the people were allowed to live: some in the land; most as captives in the land of the Babylonians.

(Isaiah 1:10) Hear the word of the LORD, ye rulers of Sodom; give ear unto the law of our God, ye people of Gomorrah.

In verse 9 Isaiah compares the Israelites to the people of Sodom and Gomorrah. He does the same here and speaks of the leaders and rulers as well as to the people at large.

These prophetic words of Isaiah are the word of the Lord and the law of God; this is true for three reasons:

  1. The source of the message is God.
  2. The message is true.
  3. God commanded Isaiah to deliver this message.

Notice that the law of God is not limited to the laws in the Torah (the first five books of the Old Testament). The people were to follow the letter of the law and to be aware of the spirit of the law; but they had become remiss in both categories.

(Isaiah 1:11) To what purpose is the multitude of your sacrifices unto me? saith the LORD: I am full of the burnt offerings of rams, and the fat of fed beasts; and I delight not in the blood of bullocks, or of lambs, or of he goats.

God requires that those bringing sacrifices have the proper disposition; that they have a contrite spirit. Sacrifices are useless if performed as mere ritual or merely out of a feeling of obligation. The sacrifices were to be heartfelt and to be a focal point of their worship of God in Spirit and Truth.

The same is true of Christians today; we are to practice our faith in Spirit and in Truth.

For Catholics, merely being Catholic and participating in the sacraments is not sufficient; these must be performed in faith and as a focal point of true worship. (Anti-Catholics are wrong to claim that these external practices have no value; they have great value when practiced properly in faith.)

(Isaiah 1:12) When ye come to appear before me, who hath required this at your hand, to tread my courts?

When presenting sacrifices the people were in actuality appearing before God. This contradicts the view of certain Protestant Reformers who claimed that the Old Testament sacrificial system had no value at all for the practitioners and that the whole point of it was merely to prefigure Christ's sacrifice (as a form of typology). They base this on passages such as the following:

It is not possible that the blood of bulls and of goats should take away sins. (Hebrews 10:4)

The law entered, that the offence might abound. (Romans 5:20)

Notice in Isaiah 1:12 that God considers the temple in Jerusalem to be his; the courts of the temple are the courts of God.

The problem in Isaiah's day was that the people were not coming to the temple with their sacrifices because God commanded it but because of a feeling of social obligation (much as Catholic Mafia hitmen go to confession before going to mass — see verse 15).

The proper attitude of one offering sacrifice is to be truly contrite over sins committed, to know that the mercy of God is present for forgiveness, and to have a spirit of worship.

(Isaiah 1:13) Bring no more vain oblations; incense is an abomination unto me; the new moons and sabbaths, the calling of assemblies, I cannot away with; it is iniquity, even the solemn meeting.

(Isaiah 1:14) Your new moons and your appointed feasts my soul hateth: they are a trouble unto me; I am weary to bear them.

Isaiah lists various rites, rituals, and religious practices which were prescribed by Moses in the Torah. These are not done away with by the New Testament; nor was Isaiah commanding the Israelites to abandon these activities and practices.

God considers it sinful to practice these religious practices without living a holy, God-honoring, righteous, faith-filled life of virtue. The point of such religious practices is to worship God and to receive his blessing of forgiveness and mercy.

(Isaiah 1:15) And when ye spread forth your hands, I will hide mine eyes from you: yea, when ye make many prayers, I will not hear: your hands are full of blood.

External acts of piety do not result in a living relationship with God; there must be a heartfelt desire to connect with him and to please him.

Some anti-Catholic cynics use verses such as these to prove that we should not practice "religious" rituals and rites at all because God doesn't like it, but this is incorrect. Even these people themselves perform religious practices such as vocal prayer, closing the eyes, lifting the hands, reading the Bible out loud, and repeating phrases from the Bible in their everyday lives.

Because we exist in the physical realm we must express our devotion to God and our love for God with our bodies. The very early church had a rich devotional life which included rites and rituals because they were influenced by Jewish synagogue worship.

Notice that God shuns us when our worship is not heartfelt.

Many claim that the image of God having eyes and ears is figurative but in my view it is literal. God is spirit but this does not mean that he doesn't literally have spiritual eyes. In the book of Revelation we see God in heaven sitting on the throne in a bodily form (Revelation 5:1).

I wonder if their hands were full of blood because they had just participated in animal sacrifice? Or perhaps some of these Israelites were involved in murder?

What they should do . . .

(Isaiah 1:16) Wash you, make you clean; put away the evil of your doings from before mine eyes; cease to do evil;

God commands us to be clean and to stop sinning. Having faith requires that we do these good works.

Notice that God doesn't command them to have faith or belief; he commands them to repent.

(Isaiah 1:17) Learn to do well; seek judgment, relieve the oppressed, judge the fatherless, plead for the widow.

It is not enough to merely stop sinning; we must actively help others who are in need.

Their society was to be one of fairness and justice for all.

(Isaiah 1:18) Come now, and let us reason together, saith the LORD: though your sins be as scarlet, they shall be as white as snow; though they be red like crimson, they shall be as wool.

The problem is sin, but sin can be cleansed.

Even the sins of the Old Testament Israelites could be forgiven if they would repent.

Blessings and curses . . .

(Isaiah 1:19) If ye be willing and obedient, ye shall eat the good of the land:

A common theme in the Old Testament is that God will bless those who are righteous and holy with material blessings. The word-faith / health-wealth teaching mimics this but this is a false and unbiblical teaching.

(Isaiah 1:20) But if ye refuse and rebel, ye shall be devoured with the sword: for the mouth of the LORD hath spoken it.

When a nation sins it is subject to the influences of wicked spirits who seek to destroy it.

This raises two questions:

  1. Why does God use one wicked nation to judge another?
  2. Why did God raise up Israel in the first place knowing it would fail?

The blessings and curses are expressed in terms of eating: of eating or being eaten (devoured by the sword). In this world creatures eat one another and humans exploit one another; this aspect of the world is not from God. Many of the Old Testament rites and rituals involve eating (passover, sacrifices, feast days) and Jesus instituted the Eucharist in which believers consume him in the form of bread and wine.

The answer to all these difficult questions is that God created this world and the creatures in it to know him and to praise him.

Let every thing that hath breath praise the LORD. (Psalm 150:6)

He allows this time of trial to test us.

That the trial of your faith, being much more precious than of gold that perisheth, though it be tried with fire, might be found unto praise and honour and glory at the appearing of Jesus Christ. (1 Peter 1:7)

Lucifer's rejection and rebellion of God had a major impact to this current world; it was created to be a world of pain and suffering for both animals and humans, and Satan was allowed to influence the first humans. The animals eat one another because of Lucifer's influence and humans kill and exploit one another because their souls are contaminated with the spirit of evil (read more here).

Wherein in time past ye walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience. (Ephesians 2:2)

In whom the god of this world hath blinded the minds of them which believe not, lest the light of the glorious gospel of Christ, who is the image of God, should shine unto them. (2 Corinthians 4:4)

God observes us as we struggle with the powers of evil and he assists in this battle. Our struggle should cause us to call out to him for salvation.

The sins of the people . . .

(Isaiah 1:21) How is the faithful city become an harlot! it was full of judgment; righteousness lodged in it; but now murderers.

The city of Jerusalem is called a harlot because the people (especially the priests and rulers) do not honor God; they have fallen from grace. There was a time when they were righteous and just, but no longer. Now they practice pagan rituals and have replaced the true God with the gods.

It is shocking to read that these people were murderers but we should not be shocked; it is easy to find modern examples of nations and people performing the most atrocious deeds. Examples from American history: genocide of Native Americans, lynching in the south, the use of nuclear weapons against cities.

God considers it important that a society provide justice for its members.

(Isaiah 1:22) Thy silver is become dross, thy wine mixed with water:

The original purity of the people has become diluted and polluted. When sin creeps in the good is destroyed.

(Isaiah 1:23) Thy princes are rebellious, and companions of thieves: every one loveth gifts, and followeth after rewards: they judge not the fatherless, neither doth the cause of the widow come unto them.

Isaiah describes some of the duties of rulers:

Rulers are accountable to God for how they carry out their duties. Anyone who desires a career in public service should consider this special obligation to care for the people in a way that pleases God.

God will judge . . .

(Isaiah 1:24) Therefore saith the Lord, the LORD of hosts, the mighty One of Israel, Ah, I will ease me of mine adversaries, and avenge me of mine enemies:

(Isaiah 1:25) And I will turn my hand upon thee, and purely purge away thy dross, and take away all thy tin:

The rulers of the nation are referred to as enemies of God. God does not ignore sin, but he finally judges it.

The purpose of God's judgment is to purge away sin.

God wins every battle; those (such as Lucifer) who think they can win against God are foolish. God may tolerate sin for a while to allow people time to repent, but he will finally judge sin.

(Isaiah 1:26) And I will restore thy judges as at the first, and thy counsellors as at the beginning: afterward thou shalt be called, The city of righteousness, the faithful city.

God will restore things to their initial goodness. The first generation of Israelites who possessed the land were zealous in their devotion to God and in their obedience to his law. But this soon faded.

This prophecy has not yet been fulfilled. My view is that this will occur in the new heavens and new earth (not in an earthly 1,000 yearmillennium) in which there is a nation of Israel being ruled by the resurrected David.

(Isaiah 1:27) Zion shall be redeemed with judgment, and her converts with righteousness.

God's purpose of judgment is not to destroy but, rather, to redeem.

(Isaiah 1:28) And the destruction of the transgressors and of the sinners shall be together, and they that forsake the LORD shall be consumed.

Wicked people who refuse to repent of their sins will be destroyed. This does not mean that they are annihilated (although their judgment may result in death, in this case by being conquered and slain by the Babylonians).

(Isaiah 1:29) For they shall be ashamed of the oaks which ye have desired, and ye shall be confounded for the gardens that ye have chosen.

(Isaiah 1:30) For ye shall be as an oak whose leaf fadeth, and as a garden that hath no water.

The oaks and the gardens refer to the places at which they performed their pagan rituals, worship, and debauchery.

At the final judgment these people will be ashamed of their evil, sinful deeds (but this does not necessarily mean that they have repented of these deeds).

The things of this world often end in an undignified manner; leaves fade, abandoned gardens wither.

(Isaiah 1:31) And the strong shall be as tow [tinder], and the maker of it [i.e., their deeds] as a spark, and they shall both burn together, and none shall quench them.

Christ often used the image of burning to refer to the judgment of sin.

Notice that both the sinner and the sins are burnt. This implies that the deeds of the righteous will endure. In my view the memories of good deeds will remain forever.

Chapter 2 . . .

(Isaiah 2:1) The word that Isaiah the son of Amoz saw concerning Judah and Jerusalem.

This chapter deals specifically with Judah and Jerusalem, not with the church age and not with a yet-future 1,000 yearearthly millennium.

The glorious future . . .

(Isaiah 2:2) And it shall come to pass in the last days, that the mountain of the Lord's house shall be established in the top of the mountains, and shall be exalted above the hills; and all nations shall flow unto it.

Some interpret this figuratively claiming it refers to the church. I reject this kind of interpretation because it has a bad side-effect — it forces us to simply ignore the many details of the passages in question.

Premillennialists consider this to refer to a yet-future 1,000 yearearthly millennium. I reject this view because considering all the details of the passage results in a fairy-tale world of magical powers.

Some think that this passage is a highly exaggerated picture of Israel in the past, perhaps after returning from the Babylonian captivity. The problems with this view are: (1) we have no guide for how to interpret these exaggerations, and (2) many details must simply be ignored.

In my view passages such as these refer to the new heavens and new earth which really will be a magical fairy-tale world. In doing so I have been forced to accept the conclusion that the new heavens and new earth will have the following characteristics (among others):

Thus, these prophecies of a yet-future glorious day literally do refer to Judah and Jerusalem (although these glories are not limited to Judah and Jerusalem).

(Isaiah 2:3) And many people shall go and say, Come ye, and let us go up to the mountain of the LORD, to the house of the God of Jacob; and he will teach us of his ways, and we will walk in his paths: for out of Zion shall go forth the law, and the word of the LORD from Jerusalem.

These events are yet-future. There has never been a time after Isaiah's day in which Israel was the focal point of the knowledge and teaching of truth for the other nations.

In the yet-future new heavens and new earth the nation of Israel with its literal physical temple in Jerusalem will be a focal point in the worship of God for those of all nations who will make regular pilgrimages to Israel. This reconstituted nation of Israel will teach about God from the Old Testament perspective — God's word (including the Old Testament) will endure forever (1 Peter 1:25; Isaiah 40:8).

Even in the new heavens and new earth people will seek after truth and will desire to be inspired and refreshed in their spiritual walk. Our spiritual journey with God does not end with death; we will live forever in the fulness of a relationship with God.

(Isaiah 2:4) And he shall judge among the nations, and shall rebuke many people: and they shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruninghooks: nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war any more.

God will judge everyone as part of the events of the second coming of Christ. Many will be damned to eternity in hell.

It seems that the first period of life in the new heavens and new earth will involve cleaning up the mess; of literally beating swords into plowshares. Conditions in the new heavens and new earth will be truly glorious; there will not be war anymore because the corrupting influences of the wicked spirits and the rebellious side of human nature will be gone.

(Isaiah 2:5) O house of Jacob, come ye, and let us walk in the light of the LORD.

Isaiah wishes his people to life a holy and righteous life. Part of the incentive he provides it that they will be able to enter into the new heavens and new earth some day.

The wicked people are judged . . .

(Isaiah 2:6) Therefore thou hast forsaken thy people the house of Jacob, because they be replenished from the east, and are soothsayers like the Philistines, and they please themselves in the children of strangers.

(Isaiah 2:7) Their land also is full of silver and gold, neither is there any end of their treasures; their land is also full of horses, neither is there any end of their chariots:

(Isaiah 2:8) Their land also is full of idols; they worship the work of their own hands, that which their own fingers have made:

(Isaiah 2:9) And the mean man boweth down, and the great man humbleth himself: therefore forgive them not.

Isaiah lists various reasons that God has forsaken the people of Israel:

(Isaiah 2:10) Enter into the rock, and hide thee in the dust, for fear of the LORD, and for the glory of his majesty.

When the Babylonians conquer Judah and Jerusalem people with flee and hide in the dirt.

In my opinion these images directly concern the judgments of the events of the second coming of Christ. Christ's second coming will occur in phases. The early phases will occur on earth as he appears in apparitions.

There are many passages in which the wicked hide in rocks and caves during a time of judgment, presumably the final judgment. Premillennialists often interpret these passages as referring to the great tribulation but some seem to be in the context of final judgment.

(Isaiah 2:11) The lofty looks of man shall be humbled, and the haughtiness of men shall be bowed down, and the LORD alone shall be exalted in that day.

God is all powerful. The arrogance of those who think they don't need God will be exposed.

(Isaiah 2:12) For the day of the LORD of hosts shall be upon every one that is proud and lofty, and upon every one that is lifted up; and he shall be brought low:

God's final judgment will be upon all the wicked. They will be eternally damned to hell.

(Isaiah 2:13) And upon all the cedars of Lebanon, that are high and lifted up, and upon all the oaks of Bashan,

(Isaiah 2:14) And upon all the high mountains, and upon all the hills that are lifted up,

Even the trees and mountains will be judged. Just as blessings can attach to objects (holy water, blessing of crucifix, etc.) so also the wicked spirits have cursed the world we live in. The curses have attached to various objects. At the final judgment these curses will be removed.

(Isaiah 2:15) And upon every high tower, and upon every fenced wall,

(Isaiah 2:16) And upon all the ships of Tarshish, and upon all pleasant pictures.

The various creations of humans such as towers, walls, ships, and pictures should not be a source of pride. God made humans to be creative; we would not have the power to create these things without God.

(Isaiah 2:17) And the loftiness of man shall be bowed down, and the haughtiness of men shall be made low: and the LORD alone shall be exalted in that day.

God is glorified when the true nature of humans is exposed. We should prefer to willingly admit that we are but humble creatures created by God for his plan, purpose, and pleasure. If we don't, God will force us to admit this on the final day of judgment.

(Isaiah 2:18) And the idols he shall utterly abolish.

Wicked spirits are the powers behind idols. These will be destroyed at the final judgment.

(Isaiah 2:19) And they shall go into the holes of the rocks, and into the caves of the earth, for fear of the LORD, and for the glory of his majesty, when he ariseth to shake terribly the earth.

Christ's second coming will occur in phases. In the early phases there will be catastrophic events in the earth and sky. The earth will literally shake as people are trying to hide from the apparitions that are visible to everyone everywhere in the world. Their buildings will collapse so they will have no where to hide except in holes of the rocks and caves which are created in the cataclysm.

(Isaiah 2:20) In that day a man shall cast his idols of silver, and his idols of gold, which they made each one for himself to worship, to the moles and to the bats;

Why would Israelites throw away their idols when the Babylonians invade? This doesn't make sense.

Perhaps at the time of the second coming people will again literally have idols constructed of silver and gold.

(Isaiah 2:21) To go into the clefts of the rocks, and into the tops of the ragged rocks, for fear of the LORD, and for the glory of his majesty, when he ariseth to shake terribly the earth.

Same comments as verse 19.

(Isaiah 2:22) Cease ye from man, whose breath is in his nostrils: for wherein is he to be accounted of?

We should not trust in humans and the works and creations of humans, after all, they are fragile living creatures who must breathe to stay alive. Instead we should trust in God.

Chapter 3 . . .

This flow of this chapter continues from chapter 2.

(Isaiah 3:1) For, behold, the Lord, the LORD of hosts, doth take away from Jerusalem and from Judah the stay and the staff, the whole stay of bread, and the whole stay of water.

Note that Isaiah is still dealing specifically with Judah and Jerusalem, not with the church age and not with a yet-future 1,000 yearearthly millennium.

God's judgment of Jerusalem and Judah by the Babylonian captivity resulted in famine and a shortage of water.

(Isaiah 3:2) The mighty man, and the man of war, the judge, and the prophet, and the prudent, and the ancient,

(Isaiah 3:3) The captain of fifty, and the honourable man, and the counsellor, and the cunning artificer, and the eloquent orator.

No one would be spared, no matter their station in life.

(Isaiah 3:4) And I will give children to be their princes, and babes shall rule over them.

(Isaiah 3:5) And the people shall be oppressed, every one by another, and every one by his neighbour: the child shall behave himself proudly against the ancient, and the base against the honourable.

There have been plenty of examples throughout history in which young, arrogant, and domineering boys have gained political and military power. Righteous rulership requires wisdom and a commitment to justice and morality.

It would be very degrading for the nation of Israel to have to submit to young rulers.

These verses refer to a condition of anarchy that results when the strong central state government is no longer in operation. In effect, those who remained in the land lived in a failed state. The moral law is no longer respected by these people.

(Isaiah 3:6) When a man shall take hold of his brother of the house of his father, saying, Thou hast clothing, be thou our ruler, and let this ruin be under thy hand:

The society is in anarchy with no unified rulership; it was a failed state. As we are all too aware of today this breeds violence and terrorism.

(Isaiah 3:7) In that day shall he swear, saying, I will not be an healer; for in my house is neither bread nor clothing: make me not a ruler of the people.

How can someone who doesn't have enough food or clothing be a ruler of the people?

It is interesting that Isaiah uses the word "healer" for a ruler. In a failed state, the re-establishment of law and order is a form of healing; political healing.

(Isaiah 3:8) For Jerusalem is ruined, and Judah is fallen: because their tongue and their doings are against the LORD, to provoke the eyes of his glory.

Isaiah reminds us why Jerusalem and Judah fell. It was because they rejected God and his influence in their society and in their lives. Their words and actions were displeasing to God.

God's glory, his holiness, demands judgment of sin.

(Isaiah 3:9) The show of their countenance doth witness against them; and they declare their sin as Sodom, they hide it not. Woe unto their soul! for they have rewarded evil unto themselves.

When a society engages in public sin with no shame, they are at risk of judgment by God. I think our modern society has crossed this line.

Notice that it is the soul of each one of us which is ultimately judged; that is to say, whether we end up in hell or spend eternity in the new heavens and new earth is the final result of our judgment.

Notice also that it is their sin which judges them, not some harsh decree of God. It's as if the sinfulness of a person results in their being repulsed from God when they finally come into his presence. For those who allow it, God's holiness will shine on them to cleanse their sin — I believe this is what purgatory is.

(Isaiah 3:10) Say ye to the righteous, that it shall be well with him: for they shall eat the fruit of their doings.

The righteous enjoy the good fruit of their good deeds. Notice that we are judged by our works, contrary to what many fundamentalist evangelical Protestants assert.

This does not mean that the righteous will not have difficulties, even severe ones while in this life. However, righteous societies in general are blessed of God and prosper. This does not mean that they have abundant material prosperity as claimed by the health/wealth teachers.

(Isaiah 3:11) Woe unto the wicked! it shall be ill with him: for the reward of his hands shall be given him.

It is a common theme in the Old Testament that the wicked will receive the curses of Deuteronomy 28:15-68.

I don't believe that this principle is abolished by the New Covenant, in the New Testament. That being said, I reject the teachings of the health/wealth, word/faith teachers.

(Isaiah 3:12) As for my people, children are their oppressors, and women rule over them. O my people, they which lead thee cause thee to err, and destroy the way of thy paths.

Referring back to verses 4, 6, and 7 of chapter 3. In the condition of anarchy, strong-willed young people (children) were able to oppress the people. In that male-dominated society it was considered disgraceful for a woman to be a ruler (although there were some notable women leaders of Israel including Deborah of Judges 4; Jezebel of 1 Kings; Queen Athaliah of 2 Kings and 2 Chronicles).

Note the important role of the leaders of nations in bringing people to a holy life. When the leaders fail to do this the nation is at risk.

(Isaiah 3:13) The LORD standeth up to plead, and standeth to judge the people.

This image of God standing up is used elsewhere to indicate that God is judging his people because the leaders.

(Acts 7:55) But he, being full of the Holy Ghost, looked up stedfastly into heaven, and saw the glory of God, and Jesus standing on the right hand of God,

(Acts 7:56) And said, Behold, I see the heavens opened, and the Son of man standing on the right hand of God.

Based on this verse in Isaiah we can understand why Stephen's remark was so disturbing to the Jewish leaders.

(Isaiah 3:14) The LORD will enter into judgment with the ancients of his people, and the princes thereof: for ye have eaten up the vineyard; the spoil of the poor is in your houses.

The image of the vineyard refers to Israel and Judah (Isaiah 5:7).

God would judge all of Israel from the very first days in which they began to reject God. This was an old nation and God endured many centuries of rebellion by his chosen people before he finally judged it by the captivity in Assyra and Babylonia.

Isaiah emphasizes over and over the important role of the leaders in providing moral guidance for the people.

(Isaiah 3:15) What mean ye that ye beat my people to pieces, and grind the faces of the poor? saith the Lord GOD of hosts.

Some example of what the leaders were doing. They oppressed the poor and treated them shamefully. Presumably, the poor didn't feel safe because even the leaders might treat them violently.

All societies have a moral obligation to look after the poor; to treat them fairly and justly; to protect them from those who are stronger.

The women are judged . . .

(Isaiah 3:16) Moreover the LORD saith, Because the daughters of Zion are haughty, and walk with stretched forth necks and wanton eyes, walking and mincing as they go, and making a tinkling with their feet:

This refers to the women; their behavior and attitudes.

It is striking that Isaiah singles out women and their attitudes in this extended passage. Apparently it is supremely important how women behave and what they think. Thus, they have a key spiritual role in society.

(Isaiah 3:17) Therefore the Lord will smite with a scab the crown of the head of the daughters of Zion, and the LORD will discover their secret parts.

I don't know what the images of the "scab" and the "secret parts" mean but whatever they are, it doesn't sound good.

See Isaiah 1:8 for comments about the phrase "daughters of Zion".

(Isaiah 3:18) In that day the Lord will take away the bravery of their tinkling ornaments about their feet, and their cauls, and their round tires like the moon,

(Isaiah 3:19) The chains, and the bracelets, and the mufflers,

(Isaiah 3:20) The bonnets, and the ornaments of the legs, and the headbands, and the tablets, and the earrings,

(Isaiah 3:21) The rings, and nose jewels,

(Isaiah 3:22) The changeable suits of apparel, and the mantles, and the wimples, and the crisping pins,

(Isaiah 3:23) The glasses, and the fine linen, and the hoods, and the veils.

A list of jewelry and clothing. Notice that Isaiah doesn't say that any of these things are bad. In fact, he considers them a good things — when these are taken away it is a bad thing.

(Isaiah 3:24) And it shall come to pass, that instead of sweet smell there shall be stink; and instead of a girdle a rent; and instead of well set hair baldness; and instead of a stomacher a girding of sackcloth; and burning instead of beauty.

The reference to beauty, perfume, girdles, stomachers, and hair styles are considered good things. Part of the judgment for their sin is that these good things are taken away.

The men are judged . . .

(Isaiah 3:25) Thy men shall fall by the sword, and thy mighty in the war.

The men went to battle against the Babylonians but they lost.

Everyone is judged . . .

(Isaiah 3:26) And her gates shall lament and mourn; and she being desolate shall sit upon the ground.

The word "gates" is figurative since gates can't do these things.

Those at the gates of the city; the rulers, judges, and merchants; lamented and mourned at their loss. They became destitute and had to sit on the ground because they lost all their material possessions. It's ironic that they became as the poor and destitute that they were oppressing.

Chapter 4 . . .

(Isaiah 4:1) And in that day seven women shall take hold of one man, saying, We will eat our own bread, and wear our own apparel: only let us be called by thy name, to take away our reproach.

This verse continues the flow of chapter 3.

It was a sad system in those days that required a woman to be associated with a man in order to have respect, dignity, and the ability to survive materially. I should mention that God did not establish this system, just as God did not condone [approve of] divorce — Moses learned this from the Egyptians and the other nations he studied. God allowed Moses to introduce these laws and rules into the nation.

(Matthew 19:8) He saith unto them, Moses because of the hardness of your hearts suffered you to put away your wives: but from the beginning it was not so.

The branch of the Lord . . .

(Isaiah 4:2) In that day shall the branch of the LORD be beautiful and glorious, and the fruit of the earth shall be excellent and comely for them that are escaped of Israel.

There appears to be a sudden jump in the time from the previous verse. In Isaiah 2:10 we see that the phrase "in that day" ultimately refers to the final judgment after the second coming of Christ. The long descriptions of God's judgment on the nation of Israel previously seem to refer specifically to the Babylonian captivity. Now it shifts to the judgment of the second coming of Christ.

We are introduced to the branch of the Lord. In chapter 11 we learn that his refers to a person descended from Jesse (King David's father).

This verse refers to those of Israel who escape. They have escaped from the eternal punishment which is the lot of the wicked. Thus, these verses refer to the glories of the new heavens and new earth after the second coming of Christ.

(Isaiah 4:3) And it shall come to pass, that he that is left in Zion, and he that remaineth in Jerusalem, shall be called holy, even every one that is written among the living in Jerusalem:

In the new heavens and new earth there will be people living in Zion and Jerusalem. They "remain" there because they are not taken captive (as those were who were taken to Babylon). Since the sin of the redeemed is forgiven, they are not taken captive and sent to hell; instead they are allowed to remain in the promised land, in the new heavens and new earth.

The image of the redeemed being "written" appears in the New Testament:

(Revelation 21:27) And there shall in no wise enter into it any thing that defileth, neither whatsoever worketh abomination, or maketh a lie: but they which are written in the Lamb's book of life.

(Isaiah 4:4) When the Lord shall have washed away the filth of the daughters of Zion, and shall have purged the blood of Jerusalem from the midst thereof by the spirit of judgment, and by the spirit of burning.

See Isaiah 1:8 for comments about the phrase "daughters of Zion".

Sin must be judged by being burned — a reference to being refined in a fire. We become clean by being washed. The wicked deeds are referred to by the image of blood; presumably some of these sins involved the actual killing of innocent people. It is hard to imagine a society that depraved.

(Isaiah 4:5) And the LORD will create upon every dwelling place of mount Zion, and upon her assemblies, a cloud and smoke by day, and the shining of a flaming fire by night: for upon all the glory shall be a defence [canopy, covering].

There will be religious assemblies in the new heavens and new earth.

The miraculous manifestations of God during the Exodus from Egypt will once again be present. God's glory will be tangible.

(Isaiah 4:6) And there shall be a tabernacle for a shadow in the daytime from the heat, and for a place of refuge, and for a covert from storm and from rain.

The new heavens and new earth will have weather, temperature changes, rain, and even storms. While we will not be affected by these (no sunburn or heatstroke), we will enjoy the variations of weather as we do in this present world. I enjoy storms; they are so energetic and they display God's power and greatness. In the new heavens and new earth we will tangibly experience God with our senses via the world he created.

Chapter 5 . . .

A new topic. Isaiah provides an allegoryof Israel, the nation that God chosen and created.

(Isaiah 5:1) Now will I sing to my wellbeloved a song of my beloved touching [concerning] his vineyard. My wellbeloved hath a vineyard in a very fruitful hill:

In verse 7 we learn that the image of the vineyard refers to Israel and Judah.

Note that God (the Father) sings to his well-beloved (Jesus, the Son of God) about his chosen people. There are allusions [references] to the Trinity all throughout the Old Testament.

God loves his chosen people.

(Isaiah 5:2) And he fenced it, and gathered out the stones thereof, and planted it with the choicest vine, and built a tower in the midst of it, and also made a winepress therein: and he looked that it should bring forth grapes, and it brought forth wild grapes.

God did everything possible to prepare his vineyard to produce fruit; to be a light to the world by living righteously. But, alas, they failed to do this; their fruit was bad; they were wicked.

(Isaiah 5:3) And now, O inhabitants of Jerusalem, and men of Judah, judge, I pray you, betwixt me and my vineyard.

(Isaiah 5:4) What could have been done more to my vineyard, that I have not done in it? wherefore, when I looked that it should bring forth grapes, brought it forth wild grapes?

God asks his people to determine whether the failure of his people was God's fault or the people's fault. There are many passages in the Old Testament in which God defends his honor, his holiness, his righteousness, and his justice. God is not shy about pointing out his attributes.

(Isaiah 5:5) And now go to; I will tell you what I will do to my vineyard: I will take away the hedge thereof, and it shall be eaten up; and break down the wall thereof, and it shall be trodden down:

God must judge even his chosen people by destroying them. Imagine the consequences of God's judgment on those who are not members of his chosen people.

(Isaiah 5:6) And I will lay it waste: it shall not be pruned, nor digged; but there shall come up briers and thorns: I will also command the clouds that they rain no rain upon it.

We require God's continual blessing and grace to prosper. In fact, God's judgment consists merely in his withdrawing his grace from us as he did with Adam and Eve.

God can only bless us when we allow him to bless us; when we receive his blessings. We have the choice to reject his blessing or to receive them.

(Isaiah 5:7) For the vineyard of the LORD of hosts is the house of Israel, and the men of Judah his pleasant plant: and he looked for judgment, but behold oppression; for righteousness, but behold a cry.

The image of the vineyard refers to Israel and Judah.

God wished for his chosen people to be just and righteous but, alas, they failed.

(Isaiah 5:8) Woe unto them that join house to house, that lay field to field, till there be no place, that they may be placed alone in the midst of the earth!

Being good stewards of this earth requires that we not overpopulate and not overcrowd.

Some commentaries suggest that this verse refers to those who accumulate land in a monopolist fashion until they own everything. The phrase "placed alone in the midst of the earth" seems to support this interpretation. They are alone because they have run out everyone else.

(Isaiah 5:9) In mine ears said the LORD of hosts, Of a truth many houses shall be desolate, even great and fair, without inhabitant.

When God judges, people are ruined.

(Isaiah 5:10) Yea, ten acres of vineyard shall yield one bath, and the seed of an homer shall yield an ephah.

These are very low returns. If agricultural production were this low we would not be able to support the current world population. I suppose if we had an economic meltdown when the oil runs out it will be difficult to get high returns from agriculture.

(Isaiah 5:11) Woe unto them that rise up early in the morning, that they may follow strong drink; that continue until night, till wine inflame them!

The Bible is very clear that excessive use of alcohol is seriously sinful. I am sad that the Catholic Church is so soft on the use of alcohol.

It is hard to imagine drinking from early morning until late at night — serious addiction.

(Isaiah 5:12) And the harp, and the viol, the tabret, and pipe, and wine, are in their feasts: but they regard not the work of the LORD, neither consider the operation of his hands.

These people are celebrating, but their celebrations exclude God. We should celebrate God's wonderful attributes and blessings; this is what religious celebrations are supposed to be.

(Isaiah 5:13) Therefore my people are gone into captivity, because they have no knowledge: and their honourable men are famished, and their multitude dried up with thirst.

Isaiah finally refers to the coming invasion of the Babylonians and the captivity of the southern kingdom of Judah. This event was over a hundred years in the future.

They are led away into captivity because of their sin. There is always a danger in blaming people's misfortune on them because there are plenty of occasions in which the innocent are treated unjustly. But sin does have consequences; in this case it weakened the people politically and militarily so they could no longer defend against other nations. If the nation of Israel had remained united as God commanded they would have been able to defend themselves from the Egyptians, the Assyrians, and the Babylonians.

(Isaiah 5:14) Therefore hell hath enlarged herself, and opened her mouth without measure: and their glory, and their multitude, and their pomp, and he that rejoiceth, shall descend into it.

Even though Isaiah is mostly discussing the physical captivity of the nation by the Babylonians, he is always thinking of eternal judgment and the damnation of the wicked to eternity in hell.

Many who are successful while on earth will ultimately end up in hell. To end up in hell is the supreme failure of a life.

(Isaiah 5:15) And the mean man shall be brought down, and the mighty man shall be humbled, and the eyes of the lofty shall be humbled:

No one is exempt from God's righteous judgment. Everyone, no matter how great, are obligated to obey God's moral law.

(Isaiah 5:16) But the LORD of hosts shall be exalted in judgment, and God that is holy shall be sanctified in righteousness.

God's holiness and righteousness are expressed in many ways, even when he judges the wicked. God is not himself wicked for consigning someone to an eternity in hell. His doing so is just and proper. The wicked should not be in God's presence; they have rejected this and chosen to live for eternity apart from God — that is what hell is; the free-will choice to live for eternity apart from God.

(Isaiah 5:17) Then shall the lambs feed after their manner, and the waste places of the fat ones shall strangers eat. [NIV — Then sheep will graze as in their own pasture; lambs will feed among the ruins of the rich.]

The King James translation is awkward. After the Babylonians carry off the nation of Judah into captivity, the sheep and lambs will graze among the ruins as if nothing had happened. These animals don't need us in order for them to prosper. All they require is adequate grazing land. The wicked rich are not so important as they think they are; not from God's perspective.

(Isaiah 5:18) Woe unto them that draw iniquity with cords of vanity, and sin as it were with a cart rope:

Some (many?) have attached themselves to sin and iniquity.

(Isaiah 5:19) That say, Let him make speed, and hasten his work, that we may see it: and let the counsel of the Holy One of Israel draw nigh and come, that we may know it!

Many people dismiss God in their unbelief. They challenge God (who they don't believe in) to show himself. Unfortunately, he will ultimately show his presence and judge sin and iniquity.

(Isaiah 5:20) Woe unto them that call evil good, and good evil; that put darkness for light, and light for darkness; that put bitter for sweet, and sweet for bitter!

There are many example in our modern world of people calling immoral acts as good. Examples:

(Isaiah 5:21) Woe unto them that are wise in their own eyes, and prudent in their own sight!

We must look to God's wisdom instead of our own. This assumes that we have a source of genuine information which is from God and which is trustworthy. Unfortunately, throughout history there have been many who claimed to represent God but who were deceivers. It is not easy for people to know the difference.

(Isaiah 5:22) Woe unto them that are mighty to drink wine, and men of strength to mingle strong drink:

The Bible is very clear that excessive use of alcohol is seriously sinful. I am sad that the Catholic Church is so soft on the use of alcohol.

(Isaiah 5:23) Which justify the wicked for reward, and take away the righteousness of the righteous from him!

Example of wicked deeds: (1) various forms of bribery or influence for profit, (2) corrupting the innocent.

(Isaiah 5:24) Therefore as the fire devoureth the stubble, and the flame consumeth the chaff, so their root shall be as rottenness, and their blossom shall go up as dust: because they have cast away the law of the LORD of hosts, and despised the word of the Holy One of Israel.

There are several mixed metaphors in this verse — this is common in the Bible.

Those who have rejected God's moral law and who have rejected God's offer of salvation are in big trouble. Their fate is as if they were burned up, rotted, and decomposed. In hell, their condition will be one of continual decay and destruction which never ends.

(Isaiah 5:25) Therefore is the anger of the LORD kindled against his people, and he hath stretched forth his hand against them, and hath smitten them: and the hills did tremble, and their carcases were torn in the midst of the streets. For all this his anger is not turned away, but his hand is stretched out still.

God will continue to judge until all evil and wickedness is utterly destroyed.

Even the hills tremble when God judges. I think this is more than a figure of speech. Part of God's judgment consists in physical phenomena such as storms, earthquakes, volcanoes and the like.

Perhaps the image of the hills trembling refers to the physical rumbling of the ground when a large army of horses invades; perhaps in the case referring to the Assyrians.

There are many passage in the Bible (Old and New Testaments) associating God's judgment with natural phenomena such the earth moving, the sun being darkened, the moon becoming blood, the stars falling. Certainly in battles these kinds of phenomena occur. But I think the final judgment when Jesus returns will be a global cataclysmic event perhaps accompanied by large objects such as comets or asteroids striking the earth.

(Isaiah 5:26) And he will lift up an ensign [signal] to the nations from far, and will hiss unto them from the end of the earth: and, behold, they shall come with speed swiftly:

God used various foreign nations to judge Israel. In the case of the southern kingdom of Israel, the Babylonians invaded and led them off to captivity several hundred years after the time of Isaiah. God called these nations to do this. Everything that occurs is part of God's plan. For example, when the Pharaoh of the time of the Exodus hardened his heart it was God who hardened his heart. God is actively part of everything that happens.

(Isaiah 5:27) None shall be weary nor stumble among them; none shall slumber nor sleep; neither shall the girdle of their loins be loosed, nor the latchet of their shoes be broken:

(Isaiah 5:28) Whose arrows are sharp, and all their bows bent, their horses' hoofs shall be counted like flint, and their wheels like a whirlwind.

The enemies of Israel are strong and prepared.

(Isaiah 5:29) Their roaring shall be like a lion, they shall roar like young lions: yea, they shall roar, and lay hold of the prey, and shall carry it away safe, and none shall deliver it.

They will be effective as lions are when they hunt animals that are weaker.

(Isaiah 5:30) And in that day they shall roar against them like the roaring of the sea: and if one look unto the land, behold darkness and sorrow, and the light is darkened in the heavens thereof.

Several mixed metaphors.

A reference again to physical phenomena; the sky becomes dark. Certainly the smoke of the city burning would cause this. The battle would be loud.

The devastation would cause anguish and sorrow.

Chapter 6 . . .

Isaiah's commission.

(Isaiah 6:1) In the year that king Uzziah died I saw also the Lord sitting upon a throne, high and lifted up, and his train [clothing] filled the temple.

Isaiah had a vision similar to John's vision as described in the book of Revelation. In these visions God the Father has a form and he is wearing clothing.

In my view, all creature have a soul which has a bodily form (but these bodies are spiritual and live in a spiritual realm). The physical body associated with the soul has a body as well (a physical body). Not all creatures have a physical body.

God is spirit yet he has a body. This is so because his body is a spiritual body. I think the view of the eastern Orthodox is correct; that God's nature has two aspects: his essence and his energy. We interact only with his energy which takes various forms.

(Isaiah 6:2) Above it stood the seraphims: each one had six wings; with twain [two] he covered his face, and with twain he covered his feet, and with twain he did fly.

It is unlikely that the flapping of the wings is what keeps them in the air.

(Isaiah 6:3) And one cried unto another, and said, Holy, holy, holy, is the LORD of hosts: the whole earth is full of his glory.

The job of the seraphims is to proclaim God's greatness, his holiness, and his glory.

(Isaiah 6:4) And the posts of the door moved at the voice of him that cried [spoke, called], and the house was filled with smoke.

In my view, symbols have a real substance (a spiritual substance) in the spiritual realm. Thus, when the room fills with smoke the images associated with smoke and the smoke itself are the same thing.

The room shook as in an earthquake when the voice spoke. This kind of natural phenomena is common in prophetic passages (read more here). We see that these occur in the spiritual realm but I think the effects of spiritual phenomena manifest in the physical world as well.

It is not what voice is referred to: whether God's or the seraphims'.

(Isaiah 6:5) Then said I, Woe is me! for I am undone; because I am a man of unclean lips, and I dwell in the midst of a people of unclean lips: for mine eyes have seen the King, the LORD of hosts.

Isaiah felt unworthy and keenly aware of his weeknesses and sinfulness in the presence of God. God's holiness convicts us of sin. In the presence of God's holiness we sense our sinfulness. In my view, God's judgment is passive; he does not actively judge us, but his mere presence brings our sins to light and to mind and we then choose whether to submit as Isaiah did or whether to stand firm in rebellion as Lucifer did (read more here).

(Isaiah 6:6) Then flew one of the seraphims unto me, having a live coal in his hand, which he had taken with the tongs from off the altar:

Notice the presence of an altar in heaven. Those who criticize the Catholic use of an altar and a sacrifice do so without justification. Altars and sacrifice occur even in heaven, even in the presence of God. The question is, what is the sacrifice not whether or not there should be one.

(Isaiah 6:7) And he laid it upon my mouth, and said, Lo, this hath touched thy lips; and thine iniquity is taken away, and thy sin purged.

The symbol of fire represents purification, but note that in heaven this is not mere symbolism but is actual fact. Note also that Isaiah's sins are not merely coveredbut they are purged and taken away.

(Isaiah 6:8) Also I heard the voice of the Lord, saying, Whom shall I send, and who will go for us? Then said I, Here am I; send me.

When God poses a question it is not meant for someone else but for us. This is the difference between those who are redeemed and others. The redeemed instantly respond favorably to God's requests/commands. This includes a willingness to obey his moral law.

(Isaiah 6:9) And he said, Go, and tell this people, Hear ye indeed, but understand not; and see ye indeed, but perceive not.

Isaiah did not completely understand the message he was to impart to the people. This indicates that his words were inspired of the Holy Spirit. It implies also that he did not completely understand his Messianic prophecies.

(Isaiah 6:10) Make the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and shut their eyes; lest they see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and understand with their heart, and convert, and be healed.

Part of Isaiah's goal was to preach truth to those who would ultimately reject it; those whose hearts were fat, whose ears were heavy, and whose eyes were shut. We are to preach the truth regardless of how it is received by others.

Conversion is a form of healing. Note that the term conversion refers to changing their lifestyle, to repenting from sin. Many fundamentalist evangelical Protestants use this term to mean accepting Jesus as their savior. This is fine as long as repentance is also emphasized.

(Isaiah 6:11) Then said I, Lord, how long? And he answered, Until the cities be wasted without inhabitant, and the houses without man, and the land be utterly desolate,

(Isaiah 6:12) And the LORD have removed men far away, and there be a great forsaking [via exile and depopulation] in the midst of the land.

Isaiah asks a very strange question, "how long?" Perhaps he wondered how long he would perform this role of prophet, or perhaps he wondered how long it would be until God judged the people. God's response makes it clear that the result of the people's refusal to repent would lead to their destruction.

The people would be conquered by the Babylonians and taken into exile several hundred years later.

(Isaiah 6:13) But yet in it shall be a tenth, and it shall return, and shall be eaten: as a teil tree, and as an oak, whose substance is in them, when they cast their leaves: so the holy seed shall be the substance thereof.

A remnant would remain in the land, but their life would be difficult. This occurred 70 years after the captivity.

Chapter 7 . . .

A new topic. This section provides a historical narrative.

(Isaiah 7:1) And it came to pass in the days of Ahaz the son of Jotham, the son of Uzziah, king of Judah, that Rezin the king of Syria, and Pekah the son of Remaliah, king of Israel, went up toward Jerusalem to war against it, but could not prevail against it.

The players are: (1) Pekah, the king of the northern kingdom, Israel; (2) Rezin, the king of Israel, and (3) Ahaz, the kins of the southern kingdom, Judah. These are bad times for the Jews. One set of Jews enter into an alliance with non-Jews in an attempt to conquer other Jews. How far have God's chosen people fallen!

(Isaiah 7:2) And it was told the house of David, saying, Syria is confederate with Ephraim. And his heart was moved, and the heart of his people, as the trees of the wood are moved with the wind.

The phrase "house of David" refers to the southern kingdom, Judah. The term "Ephraim" refers to the Samaria of the northern kingdom, Israel (see verse 9).

Even thick trees will sway in the wind, or will break and fall to the ground if the wind is strong enough.

(Isaiah 7:3) Then said the LORD unto Isaiah, Go forth now to meet Ahaz, thou, and Shearjashub [a remnant will return] thy son, at the end of the conduit of the upper pool in the highway of the fuller's field;

God commands Isaiah to intervene in this political struggle. The claim that the Church should never become involved in secular matters is incorrect. True religion embraces all topics. (But I have my doubts that the Christendom of history should have persecuted non-Christians or even other Christians.)

God tells Isaiah exactly when and where to meet Ahaz. The spiritual life does not consist of vague generalities but in specifics. This is why external aspects to our worship of God is important; such things as:

(Isaiah 7:4) And say unto him, Take heed, and be quiet; fear not, neither be fainthearted for the two tails of these smoking firebrands, for the fierce anger of Rezin with Syria, and of the son of Remaliah.

(Isaiah 7:5) Because Syria, Ephraim, and the son of Remaliah, have taken evil counsel against thee, saying,

(Isaiah 7:6) Let us go up against Judah, and vex it, and let us make a breach therein for us, and set a king in the midst of it, even the son of Tabeal:

(Isaiah 7:7) Thus saith the Lord GOD, It shall not stand, neither shall it come to pass.

Judah would not be defeated by its enemies this time. Isaiah was to encourage the leaders of Judah to not fear and to fight against them.

I think God choses sides in various wars and political struggles.

(Isaiah 7:8) For the head of Syria is Damascus, and the head of Damascus is Rezin; and within threescore and five years [65 years] shall Ephraim be broken, that it be not a people.

(Isaiah 7:9) And the head of Ephraim is Samaria, and the head of Samaria is Remaliah's son. If ye will not believe, surely ye shall not be established.

This conflict would end within 65 years and Judah would be victorious but only if they kept the faith. How often success depends on a firm resolve and conviction that the course of action will lead to success; without this firm resolve failure often results instead. Thus, we need people to encourage us to persevere in times of weak faith or of doubt.

(Isaiah 7:10) Moreover the LORD spake again unto Ahaz, saying,

(Isaiah 7:11) Ask thee a sign of the LORD thy God; ask it either in the depth, or in the height above.

Ahaz's faith is weak and God wishes to strengthen him by giving him a miraculous sign.

(Isaiah 7:12) But Ahaz said, I will not ask, neither will I tempt the LORD.

I wonder why Ahaz refused. Perhaps it was because his love of God was not sincere. Perhaps he did not wish to give Isaiah any recognition as being a prophet of God. Perhaps he was afraid of interacting with God. Perhaps he believed that Isaiah could perform magical stunts to fool people and he didn't want this to happen.

(Isaiah 7:13) And he said, Hear ye now, O house of David; Is it a small thing for you to weary men, but will ye weary my God also?

Ahaz's weak faith wearied both men and God.

Notice that the leader, Ahaz, represents the entire nation (house of David). What leaders do is important because the people they rule are impacted and influenced. We should pray that our leaders provide Godly and righteous leadership.

(Isaiah 7:14) Therefore the Lord himself shall give you a sign; Behold, a virgin [young woman] shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel [God with us].

Even though Ahaz denied the opportunity to choose a miraculous sign, God gave him one anyway.

This sign certainly did not impress Ahaz much. He probably scoffed at its imprecise prediction.

This prophecy is applied by Matthew to Jesus and Mary:

Matthew 1:21) And she shall bring forth a son, and thou shalt call his name JESUS: for he shall save his people from their sins.

Matthew 1:22) Now all this was done, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken of the Lord by the prophet, saying,

Matthew 1:23) Behold, a virgin shall be with child, and shall bring forth a son, and they shall call his name Emmanuel, which being interpreted is, God with us.

In the context of the book of Isaiah, this prophecy refers to a child that Isaiah would have. The significance is merely that the kings of both Israel and Syria would both fall from power within a few years.

Notice that Isaiah is married. He is the spiritual leader of Israel and is married. The Roman rite of the Catholic Church insists that church leaders should be unmarried but the Orthodox Churches disagree. In my opinion, this insistence on an unmarried clergy has caused much trouble for the Catholic Church. I admit that there are certain advantages:

(Isaiah 7:15) Butter and honey shall he eat, that he may know to refuse the evil, and choose the good.

This child would live some sort of consecrated life. Jesus ate more than butter and honey; he also ate fish and drank wine.

It is interesting to note that diet affects spirituality.

(Isaiah 7:16) For before the child shall know to refuse the evil, and choose the good, the land that thou abhorrest shall be forsaken of both her kings.

The typical time of the age of accountability is 7 years old.

The kings of Israel and Syria would fall from power within a decade of Isaiah's prophecy.

(Isaiah 7:17) The LORD shall bring upon thee, and upon thy people, and upon thy father's house, days that have not come from the day that Ephraim departed from Judah; even the king of Assyria.

(Isaiah 7:18) And it shall come to pass in that day, that the LORD shall hiss for the fly that is in the uttermost part of the rivers of Egypt, and for the bee that is in the land of Assyria.

A new prophecy concerning Judah; that Assyria would become a serious threat. Assyria carried-off Israel the northern kingdom to captivity but did not prevail against the southern kingdom, Judah.

Presumably the threat from Assyria would occur at about the same time that the two kings mentioned would fall from power.

Notice that Egypt is involved in all this. Certainly this prophecy from Isaiah would cause alarm for Ahaz. He should have selected a sign — it likely would have had a better outcome for him. Having faith is always better than lacking faith.

Notice the figures of speech: Egypt is a fly and Assyria is a bee. These are both annoying insects but they do not kill.

(Isaiah 7:19) And they shall come, and shall rest all of them in the desolate valleys, and in the holes of the rocks, and upon all thorns, and upon all bushes.

(Isaiah 7:20) In the same day shall the Lord shave with a razor that is hired, namely, by them beyond the river, by the king of Assyria, the head, and the hair of the feet: and it shall also consume the beard.

The shorn hair and beard refers to devastation — many of the cities of Judah were captured by the Assyrians and they shaved the head and beards of their captives. Certainly this happened to the northern kingdom of Israel.

Assyria invaded parts of Judah and took captives long before attempting to conquer Jerusalem (see chapter 36).

(Isaiah 7:21) And it shall come to pass in that day, that a man shall nourish a young cow, and two sheep;

(Isaiah 7:22) And it shall come to pass, for the abundance of milk that they shall give he shall eat butter: for butter and honey shall every one eat that is left in the land.

This refers to those who survive. They have small flocks and search for honey. Their cities and farms have been destroyed.

(Isaiah 7:23) And it shall come to pass in that day, that every place shall be, where there were a thousand vines at a thousand silverlings [silver, money], it shall even be for briers and thorns.

(Isaiah 7:24) With arrows and with bows shall men come thither; because all the land shall become briers and thorns.

(Isaiah 7:25) And on all hills that shall be digged with the mattock [small pickaxe], there shall not come thither the fear of briers and thorns: but it shall be for the sending forth of oxen, and for the treading of lesser cattle.

The land will be desolated.

In the previous verse it seems that the people of the southern kingdom Judah would survive and have some amount of prosperity after the Assyrian invasion.

Chapter 8 . . .

(Isaiah 8:1) Moreover the LORD said unto me, Take thee a great roll, and write in it with a man's pen concerning Mahershalalhashbaz.

(Isaiah 8:2) And I took unto me faithful witnesses to record, Uriah the priest, and Zechariah the son of Jeberechiah.

Isaiah is commanded by God to write down a prophecy in the presence of witnesses.

(Isaiah 8:3) And I went unto the prophetess; and she conceived, and bare a son. Then said the LORD to me, Call his name Mahershalalhashbaz.

Apparently Isaiah was married to a prophetess. He is commanded by God to name his son Mahershalalhashbaz meaning, "he has made haste to the plunder".

(Isaiah 8:4) For before the child shall have knowledge to cry, My father, and my mother, the riches of Damascus and the spoil of Samaria shall be taken away before the king of Assyria.

We now learn why Syria and Israel are not a threat to Judah; it is because they are invaded by Assyra.

(Isaiah 8:5) The LORD spake also unto me again, saying,

(Isaiah 8:6) Forasmuch as this people refuseth the waters of Shiloah that go softly, and rejoice in Rezin and Remaliah's son;

The waters of Shiloah are a pool in Jerusalem. This pool was used during part of the religious worship. In rejecting these waters the people were rejecting the God who established the nation of Israel.

(Isaiah 8:7) Now therefore, behold, the Lord bringeth up upon them the waters of the river, strong and many, even the king of Assyria, and all his glory: and he shall come up over all his channels, and go over all his banks:

The word "river" refers to Tigris river of Assyria.

This is a metaphor of a flooded river overflowing it banks and wreaking devastation is the surrounding land.

(Isaiah 8:8) And he shall pass through Judah; he shall overflow and go over, he shall reach even to the neck; and the stretching out of his wings shall fill the breadth of thy land, O Immanuel.

Assyria invaded parts of Judah, but Jerusalem was spared.

It is interesting that Immanuel, the son of Isaiah is mentioned here. Presumably the presence of this son protects Judah in some way. The sign that God gave to Ahaz means that God is with his people even though they are not worthy of his protection.

(Isaiah 8:9) Associate yourselves, O ye people, and ye shall be broken in pieces; and give ear, all ye of far countries: gird yourselves, and ye shall be broken in pieces; gird yourselves, and ye shall be broken in pieces.

(Isaiah 8:10) Take counsel together, and it shall come to nought; speak the word, and it shall not stand: for God is with us.

(Isaiah 8:11) For the LORD spake thus to me with a strong hand, and instructed me that I should not walk in the way of this people, saying,

(Isaiah 8:12) Say ye not, A confederacy, to all them to whom this people shall say, A confederacy; neither fear ye their fear, nor be afraid.

Those nations that attempted to unite with Assyria would be destroyed. Judah was to reject doing this and would be spared as a result.

The reference to "God with us" is a reference to the sign given to Ahaz, to the son, the Immanuel.

(Isaiah 8:13) Sanctify the LORD of hosts himself; and let him be your fear, and let him be your dread.

As always, God demanded that his chosen people consider God to be their ruler. They were to be more afraid of God's holy wrath than of their political enemies. If they did this, God would protect them. As they rejected doing this, they became weaker and weaker and were ultimately destroyed.

(Isaiah 8:14) And he [the LORD of hosts] shall be for a sanctuary; but for a stone of stumbling and for a rock of offence to both the houses of Israel, for a gin [trap] and for a snare to the inhabitants of Jerusalem.

(Isaiah 8:15) And many among them shall stumble, and fall, and be broken, and be snared, and be taken.

God is both a sanctuary and a stumbling-block: a sanctuary for those of faith; a stumbling-block for those who reject him.

As a practical example of this, those of the northern kingdom who rejected God's rulership of the nation he created split away and established their own religious system. As a result, they drifted away from God and would be judged for this. In addition, by splitting the nation they became more vulnerable to attacks by enemies and would be destroyed by the Assyrians.

(Isaiah 8:16) Bind up the testimony, seal the law among my disciples.

(Isaiah 8:17) And I [Isaiah] will wait upon the LORD, that hideth his face from the house of Jacob, and I [Isaiah] will look for him.

We are to wait upon the Lord and to obey his commands. Currently, God is hiding from his people because they are in rebellion. Even the nation of Judah is in rebellion against God as previous chapters have shown.

(Isaiah 8:18) Behold, I [Isaiah] and the children whom the LORD hath given me are for signs and for wonders in Israel from the LORD of hosts, which dwelleth in mount Zion.

It is believers who are signs and wonders. There is no need to look for magical and miraculous events to see God's workings.

(Isaiah 8:19) And when they shall say unto you, Seek unto them that have familiar spirits, and unto wizards that peep, and that mutter: should not a people seek unto their God? for the living to the dead?

We are not to seek after those who practice the dark arts.

(Isaiah 8:20) To the law and to the testimony: if they speak not according to this word, it is because there is no light in them.

We are to compare the words of those who claim to speak in the name of the Lord with the words of true Prophets of the Lord such as Isaiah.

(Isaiah 8:21) And they shall pass through it [the land], hardly [greatly] bestead [distressed] and hungry: and it shall come to pass, that when they shall be hungry, they shall fret themselves, and curse their king and their God, and look upward.

(Isaiah 8:22) And they shall look unto the earth; and behold trouble and darkness, dimness of anguish; and they shall be driven to darkness.

The unredeemed curse God when they become hungry and when they have extreme difficulties.

The words darkness and dimness refer to troubles caused by invasions as the next verse shows.

Chapter 9 . . .

(Isaiah 9:1) Nevertheless the dimness shall not be such as was in her vexation, when at the first he lightly afflicted the land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali, and afterward did more grievously afflict her by the way of the sea, beyond Jordan, in Galilee of the nations.

The Assyrians invaded the northern kingdom and conquered part of the land. Only Samaria remained.

2 Kings 15:29 In the days of Pekah king of Israel came Tiglathpileser king of Assyria, and took Ijon, and Abelbethmaachah, and Janoah, and Kedesh, and Hazor, and Gilead, and Galilee, all the land of Naphtali, and carried them captive to Assyria.

1 Chronicles 5:26) And the God of Israel stirred up the spirit of Pul king of Assyria, and the spirit of Tilgathpilneser king of Assyria, and he carried them away, even the Reubenites, and the Gadites, and the half tribe of Manasseh, and brought them unto Halah, and Habor, and Hara, and to the river Gozan, unto this day.

Isaiah reminds the people of the southern kingdom Judah of these past difficulties and predicts that the difficulties that are about to come upon them will not be that great.

(Isaiah 9:2) The people that walked in darkness have seen a great light: they that dwell in the land of the shadow of death, upon them hath the light shined.

God would preserve the southern kingdom of Judah (at least for a time) from the troubles he was bringing on the northern kingdom Israel. The "great light" is the "Immanuel", the "God with us", which would preserve them.

Isaiah is again referring to the sign that God would give to Ahaz (Isaiah 7:11). The people are afraid of their enemies but God would rescue them (at least temporarily). They are supposed to repent of their wickedness and God would give them time to repent, but finally they are judged and carried off to Babylon because they didn't repent.

Jesus is the same kind of sign for the people of Israel. The Jewish people of Jesus' day are wicked and their rulers and leaders are wicked and so God gave them an opportunity to repent; this was the purpose of the ministry of John the Baptist and of Jesus. But since they failed to repent they were finally judged by the Romans in 70 A.D. with the destruction of the temple and of Jerusalem.

Matthew 4:13) And leaving Nazareth, he [Jesus] came and dwelt in Capernaum, which is upon the sea coast, in the borders of Zabulon and Nephthalim:

Matthew 4:14) That it might be fulfilled which was spoken by Esaias the prophet, saying,

Matthew 4:15) The land of Zabulon, and the land of Nephthalim, by the way of the sea, beyond Jordan, Galilee of the Gentiles;

Matthew 4:16) The people which sat in darkness saw great light; and to them which sat in the region and shadow of death light is sprung up.

Notice that the light given by Isaiah is the same light given by Jesus. God's word is truth, whatever the source.

(Isaiah 9:3) Thou hast multiplied the nation, and not increased the joy: they joy before thee according to the joy in harvest, and as men rejoice when they divide the spoil.

In those days, when an army conquered its enemies they celebrated as they plundered the goods; they became more wealthy when they won battles. This is a gruesome image to be sure but those were gruesome times.

The second image is that of the joy people have during harvest time, when they gather the grain for the year. This image contrasts with the image of starvation and devastation.

These verses are referring to a glorious time of victory.

(Isaiah 9:4) For thou hast broken the yoke of his burden, and the staff of his shoulder, the rod of his oppressor, as in the day of Midian.

(Isaiah 9:5) For every battle of the warrior is with confused noise, and garments rolled in blood; but this shall be with burning and fuel of fire.

The weak and fearful leader Gideon, chosen by God, defeated Midian with a tiny army chosen by God (Judges 7).

The victory of Gideon over Midian was miraculous. God provides miracle-workers to save his people when the time is ripe. In the next verse we see an expansion of this idea when God would save his people from the sting of death by the miraculous appearance and intervention of the Messiah.

(Isaiah 9:6) For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace.

(Isaiah 9:7) Of the increase of his government and peace there shall be no end, upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom, to order it, and to establish it with judgment and with justice from henceforth even for ever. The zeal of the LORD of hosts will perform this.

It's hard to imagine that Isaiah is still talking about the sign for Ahaz, about Mahershalalhashbaz; there is simply too much detail given.

This son of Isaiah 9:6 is given for us, just as Mahershalalhashbaz was given for the people as a sign. However, the sign in Isaiah 9:6 refers to the attributes of the son. He would be a ruler, the Prince of Peace, and even God himself.

The Jewish rabbis understood from Old Testamant passages such as this that there would some day be a Messiah. Some of them expected this Messiah to be an incarnation of God himself, but others thought he would merely be a political leader who would rescue the nation and usher in a utopia.

Jesus Christ is the ultimate expression of victory from the jaws of defeat. A mere man defeated Satan by his death. In the immediate context, the enemies of Ahaz are threatening him and he is afraid. But the birth of the son of Isaiah, Mahershalalhashbaz, by symbolizing the victory over the enemies represents God's saving grace for all in times of trouble.

Verses 8:21-9:5 refer to people who are having various kinds of trouble but who are saved by the miraculous intervention of God.

It seems odd that this Messianic prophecy would appear seemingly out of nowhere, however, this is common with Isaiah. There is a long build-up followed by an unexpected prophecy.

(Isaiah 9:8) The Lord sent a word into Jacob, and it hath lighted upon Israel.

God used the prophecies of Isaiah (who lived in the southern kingdom of Judah) to speak of the condition and destiny of the northern kingdom Israel.

(Isaiah 9:9) And all the people shall know, even Ephraim and the inhabitant of Samaria, that say in the pride and stoutness of heart,

Those living in Israel will imagine that they are safe from attack because they have entered into these various alliances against the southern kingdom of Judah. Ephraim and Samaria are two portions of Israel.

(Isaiah 9:10) The bricks are fallen down, but we will build with hewn stones: the sycamores are cut down, but we will change them into cedars.

The people of Israel imagine that even if they are attacked, they will merely rebuild using better materials: hewn stones are better than bricks, cedars are better than sycamores.

(Isaiah 9:11) Therefore the LORD shall set up the adversaries of Rezin against him [Israel], and join his enemies together;

We are back on the original topic from verse 7:1 about Rezin the king of Syria and Pekah the king of Israel who were seeking to invade Judah.

The tide has turned; Israel is now the target instead of one of the attackers.

(Isaiah 9:12) The Syrians before, and the Philistines behind; and they shall devour Israel with open mouth. For all this his [God's] anger is not turned away, but his hand is stretched out still.

But notice that now, Rezin the king of Syria joins forces with the Philistines to destroy Israel. The tables have turned!

God is merely beginning his devastation of Israel, there is much worse to come when the Assyrians invade.

(Isaiah 9:13) For the people turneth not unto him that smiteth them, neither do they seek the LORD of hosts.

(Isaiah 9:14) Therefore the LORD will cut off from Israel head and tail, branch and rush, in one day.

Isaiah reminds the people of Israel that it is their lack of faith in God that is the cause of God's not protecting them.

(Isaiah 9:15) The ancient and honourable, he is the head; and the prophet that teacheth lies, he is the tail.

(Isaiah 9:16) For the leaders of this people cause them to err; and they that are led of them are destroyed.

Corrupt leaders and false prophets are leading the people into disaster.

(Isaiah 9:17) Therefore the Lord shall have no joy in their young men, neither shall have mercy on their fatherless and widows: for every one is an hypocrite and an evildoer, and every mouth speaketh folly. For all this his anger is not turned away, but his hand is stretched out still.

When God judges without mercy the people are doomed.

Notice that God even neglects to take care of the orphans and widows. God allows the wicked leaders to corrupt the people and in doing so there is destruction for everyone in the society. It seems that our modern-day society is falling into this same situation.

(Isaiah 9:18) For wickedness burneth as the fire: it shall devour the briers and thorns, and shall kindle in the thickets of the forest, and they shall mount up like the lifting up of smoke.

(Isaiah 9:19) Through the wrath of the LORD of hosts is the land darkened, and the people shall be as the fuel of the fire: no man shall spare his brother.

(Isaiah 9:20) And he shall snatch on the right hand, and be hungry; and he shall eat on the left hand, and they shall not be satisfied: they shall eat every man the flesh of his own arm:

(Isaiah 9:21) Manasseh, Ephraim; and Ephraim, Manasseh: and they together shall be against Judah. For all this his anger is not turned away, but his hand is stretched out still.

Chapter 10 . . .

(Isaiah 10:1) Woe unto them that decree unrighteous decrees, and that write grievousness which they have prescribed;

(Isaiah 10:2) To turn aside the needy from judgment, and to take away the right from the poor of my people, that widows may be their prey, and that they may rob the fatherless!

(Isaiah 10:3) And what will ye do in the day of visitation, and in the desolation which shall come from far? to whom will ye flee for help? and where will ye leave your glory?

(Isaiah 10:4) Without me they shall bow down under the prisoners, and they shall fall under the slain. For all this his anger is not turned away, but his hand is stretched out still.

(Isaiah 10:5) O Assyrian, the rod of mine anger, and the staff in their hand is mine indignation.

(Isaiah 10:6) I will send him against an hypocritical nation, and against the people of my wrath will I give him a charge, to take the spoil, and to take the prey, and to tread them down like the mire of the streets.

(Isaiah 10:7) Howbeit he meaneth not so, neither doth his heart think so; but it is in his heart to destroy and cut off nations not a few.

(Isaiah 10:8) For he saith, Are not my princes altogether kings?

(Isaiah 10:9) Is not Calno as Carchemish? is not Hamath as Arpad? is not Samaria as Damascus?

(Isaiah 10:10) As my hand hath found the kingdoms of the idols, and whose graven images did excel them of Jerusalem and of Samaria:

(Isaiah 10:11) Shall I not, as I have done unto Samaria and her idols, so do to Jerusalem and her idols?

(Isaiah 10:12) Wherefore it shall come to pass, that when the Lord hath performed his whole work upon mount Zion and on Jerusalem, I will punish the fruit of the stout heart of the king of Assyria, and the glory of his high looks.

(Isaiah 10:13) For he saith, By the strength of my hand I have done it, and by my wisdom; for I am prudent: and I have removed the bounds of the people, and have robbed their treasures, and I have put down the inhabitants like a valiant man:

(Isaiah 10:14) And my hand hath found as a nest the riches of the people: and as one gathereth eggs that are left, have I gathered all the earth; and there was none that moved the wing, or opened the mouth, or peeped.

(Isaiah 10:15) Shall the ax boast itself against him that heweth therewith? or shall the saw magnify itself against him that shaketh it? as if the rod should shake itself against them that lift it up, or as if the staff should lift up itself, as if it were no wood.

(Isaiah 10:16) Therefore shall the Lord, the Lord of hosts, send among his fat ones leanness; and under his glory he shall kindle a burning like the burning of a fire.

(Isaiah 10:17) And the light of Israel shall be for a fire, and his Holy One for a flame: and it shall burn and devour his thorns and his briers in one day;

(Isaiah 10:18) And shall consume the glory of his forest, and of his fruitful field, both soul and body: and they shall be as when a standardbearer fainteth.

(Isaiah 10:19) And the rest of the trees of his forest shall be few, that a child may write them.

(Isaiah 10:20) And it shall come to pass in that day, that the remnant of Israel, and such as are escaped of the house of Jacob, shall no more again stay [rely] upon him that smote them; but shall stay [rely] upon the LORD, the Holy One of Israel, in truth.

One of Isaiah's themes was that Israel should not rely on alliances of various nations around them but should, rather, rely on the Lord.

The remnant are those who survive the captivity. The people were taken into captivity as a judgment for their sins so the image of the remnant refers to those who return to God; to those who truly worship God.

(Isaiah 10:21) The remnant shall return, even the remnant of Jacob, unto the mighty God.

The remnant returns to God, not just to the land.

(Isaiah 10:22) For though thy people Israel be as the sand of the sea, yet a remnant of them shall return: the consumption [destruction] decreed shall overflow with righteousness.

(Isaiah 10:23) For the Lord GOD of hosts shall make a consumption, even determined, in the midst of all the land.

(Isaiah 10:24) Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD of hosts, O my people that dwellest in Zion, be not afraid of the Assyrian: he shall smite thee with a rod, and shall lift up his staff against thee, after the manner of Egypt.

God is speaking to a future generation of Jews, to those who would return to the land after the captivity. Certainly, there was much to fear for those who were taken captivity or who were killed in the battles.

(Isaiah 10:25) For yet a very little while, and the indignation shall cease, and mine anger in their destruction.

(Isaiah 10:26) And the LORD of hosts shall stir up a scourge for him according to the slaughter of Midian at the rock of Oreb: and as his rod was upon the sea, so shall he lift it up after the manner of Egypt.

(Isaiah 10:27) And it shall come to pass in that day, that his burden shall be taken away from off thy shoulder, and his yoke from off thy neck, and the yoke shall be destroyed because of the anointing.

(Isaiah 10:28) He is come to Aiath, he is passed to Migron; at Michmash he hath laid up his carriages:

(Isaiah 10:29) They are gone over the passage: they have taken up their lodging at Geba; Ramah is afraid; Gibeah of Saul is fled.

(Isaiah 10:30) Lift up thy voice, O daughter of Gallim: cause it to be heard unto Laish, O poor Anathoth.

(Isaiah 10:31) Madmenah is removed; the inhabitants of Gebim gather themselves to flee.

(Isaiah 10:32) As yet shall he remain at Nob that day: he shall shake his hand against the mount of the daughter of Zion, the hill of Jerusalem.

(Isaiah 10:33) Behold, the Lord, the LORD of hosts, shall lop the bough with terror: and the high ones of stature shall be hewn down, and the haughty shall be humbled.

(Isaiah 10:34) And he shall cut down the thickets of the forest with iron, and Lebanon shall fall by a mighty one.

Chapter 11 . . .

(Isaiah 11:1) And there shall come forth a rod [shoot] out of the stem [stump] of Jesse, and a Branch shall grow out of his roots:

There are several references to David, the son of Jesse. In this verse the Branch cannot refer to David because David had died long before. It refers to someone from the line of David.

(2 Samuel 7:12) And when thy days be fulfilled, and thou shalt sleep with thy fathers, I will set up thy seed after thee, which shall proceed out of thy bowels, and I will establish his kingdom.

(2 Sam 7:13) He shall build an house for my name, and I will stablish the throne of his kingdom for ever.

In the following verses the Branch cannot refer to Joshua, the high priest, because he is not a descendant of David. Therefore, the Branch refers to Christ.

(Zechariah 3:8) Hear now, O Joshua the high priest, thou, and thy fellows that sit before thee: for they are men wondered at: for, behold, I will bring forth my servant the BRANCH.

(Zechariah 6:12) And speak unto him, saying, Thus speaketh the LORD of hosts, saying, Behold the man whose name is The BRANCH; and he shall grow up out of his place, and he shall build the temple of the LORD

The line of David became a stump when the Babylonians took Judah into captivity. There was no descendant ruling over the nation of Israel after that. But centuries after, Christ was born who would take on the role of king of Israel, but this time the kingdom was to be composed of the righteous — of those of faith. The full expression of the kingdom would not occur until the new heavens and new earth. The idea of Christendom that the Church was to have a worldly rule was misguided.

(Isaiah 11:2) And the spirit of the LORD shall rest upon him, the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and might, the spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the LORD;

These characteristics are of God and from God. The Spirit of God rested upon Jesus.

(Matthew 3:16) And Jesus, when he was baptized, went up straightway out of the water: and, lo, the heavens were opened unto him, and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove, and lighting upon him.

(Isaiah 11:3) And shall make him of quick understanding in the fear of the LORD: and he shall not judge after the sight of his eyes, neither reprove after the hearing of his ears:

(Isaiah 11:4) But with righteousness shall he judge the poor, and reprove with equity for the meek of the earth: and he shall smite the earth with the rod of his mouth, and with the breath of his lips shall he slay the wicked.

Jesus is the judge. Chapter 19 of the book or Revelation presents Jesus as the judge come back to judge everyone, both the righteous and the wicked.

(Revelation 19:15) And out of his mouth goeth a sharp sword, that with it he should smite the nations: and he shall rule them with a rod of iron: and he treadeth the winepress of the fierceness and wrath of Almighty God.

In the gospel of John, Jesus states that he has not come to judge:

(John 12:47) And if any man hear my words, and believe not, I judge him not: for I came not to judge the world, but to save the world.

But he also states that he will judge:

(John 5:30) I can of mine own self do nothing: as I hear, I judge: and my judgment is just; because I seek not mine own will, but the will of the Father which hath sent me.

His mission is to save the world, but he must also judge sin:

(John 8:15) Ye judge after the flesh; I judge no man.

(John 8:16) And yet if I judge, my judgment is true: for I am not alone, but I and the Father that sent me.

(Isaiah 11:5) And righteousness shall be the girdle of his loins [belt], and faithfulness the girdle of his reins [sash around the waist].

Jesus is righteous and faithful.

The final condition of those redeemed by the Messiah is now described.

(Isaiah 11:6) The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the kid; and the calf and the young lion and the fatling together; and a little child shall lead them.

(Isaiah 11:7) And the cow and the bear shall feed; their young ones shall lie down together: and the lion shall eat straw like the ox.

(Isaiah 11:8) And the sucking child shall play on the hole of the asp, and the weaned child shall put his hand on the cockatrice' den.

These verses are often interpreted figuratively but there is no compelling reason to do so. And if we interpret these verses figuratively, why should we not also interpret the previous verses figuratively as well? (or the whole book of Isaiah for that matter?)

Premillennialists typically assign these conditions to a yet-future 1,000 yearphysical millennium on the earth, but note the magical and miraculous conditions. How is it possible that carnivores no longer eat meat? This idea is as bizarre as claiming that they did not eat meat before the fall of Adam and Eve.

In my view these verses refer to conditions in the new heavens and new earth which comes immediately after the Christ's return.

(Revelation 21:1) And I saw a new heaven and a new earth: for the first heaven and the first earth were passed away; and there was no more sea.

(Isaiah 11:9) They shall not hurt nor destroy in all my holy mountain: for the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the LORD, as the waters cover the sea.

In the new heavens and new earth dangerous animals will no longer be dangerous. Everyone will know God. Note that in the New Testament knowledge is considered a key ingredient of being a Christian (search on the word "knowledge" and you will see what I mean). Here's one example:

(Ephesians 4:13) Till we all come in the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, unto a perfect man, unto the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ.

(Isaiah 11:10) And in that day there shall be a root of Jesse, which shall stand for an ensign [banner, signal] of the people; to it shall the Gentiles seek: and his rest shall be glorious.

Even the Gentiles would have access to the Messiah. This verse mentions both seeking the Messiah and the final condition for those who do seek him.

(Isaiah 11:11) And it shall come to pass in that day, that the Lord shall set his hand again the second time to recover the remnant of his people, which shall be left, from Assyria, and from Egypt, and from Pathros, and from Cush, and from Elam, and from Shinar, and from Hamath, and from the islands [coastlands] of the sea.

(Isaiah 11:12) And he shall set up an ensign [banner, signal] for the nations, and shall assemble the outcasts of Israel, and gather together the dispersed of Judah from the four corners of the earth.

The phrase "that day" connects this verse with the previous verse. Just as the Messiah provides deliverance for even for the Gentiles (verse 10), so also will God provide deliverance for those Jews who were dispersed by the captivity (verse 11) — a remnant of their descendants will return to the land.

The first remnant was of those who survived the captivity in Egypt (see verse 16 below). The second remnant would be those to survive the captivity by the Assyrians and Babylonians (yet-future in Isaiah's day).

The areas mentioned cover a very large area from south of Egypt to Babylon. Those who interpret this verse to refer to the conversion of Jews to Christianity must interpret these place names as figurative. When Jesus came the Roman Empire was the dominant political entity and it encompassed an area much larger than that described in this verse, but all these places were part of the Roman Empire.

The book of Isaiah slowly develops the theme of a remnant who survive destruction and captivity, who begin to take root, and who finally prosper. Ultimately all who survive the oppression of sin and who accept redemption via faith in the Messiah are redeemed; thus, the idea of "the remnant" begins more and more to refer to the redeemed.

(Isaiah 11:13) The envy also of Ephraim shall depart, and the adversaries of Judah shall be cut off: Ephraim shall not envy Judah, and Judah shall not vex Ephraim.

After the return from captivity there was no more divided kingdom.

(Isaiah 11:14) But they shall fly upon the shoulders of the Philistines toward the west; they shall spoil them of the east together: they shall lay their hand upon Edom and Moab; and the children of Ammon shall obey them.

After Cyrus allows a remnant to return to Israel, the nations and peoples of the Philistines, Edom, and Moab all eventually disappear. In the book of 1 Maccabees there is some evidence that Ammon was partially defeated in battle.

(Isaiah 11:15) And the LORD shall utterly destroy the tongue of the Egyptian sea; and with his mighty wind shall he shake his hand over the river, and shall smite it in the seven streams, and make men go over dryshod.

When Cyrus set out to conquer Babylon he dug irrigation trenches to divert the flow of the Tigris River so he could cross it (see Herodotus i. 189). He also diverted the flow of the Euphrates River.

Some of those living in Judah at the time of the Babylonians escaped to Egypt. Presumably they were able to come back to the land of Israel.

Cambyses, the son of Cyrus, conquered Egypt and apparently participated in the rebuilding of the temple in Jerusalem.

Perhaps these images are yet-future. It is hard to imagine how this verse could have been literally fulfilled in the past.

(Isaiah 11:16) And there shall be an highway for the remnant of his people, which shall be left, from Assyria; like as it was to Israel in the day that he came up out of the land of Egypt.

The first remnant was of those who survived the captivity in Egypt. The second remnant would be those to survive the captivity by the Assyrians and Babylonians (yet-future in Isaiah's day).

The path the Jews followed in escaping from Egypt is here referred to as a "highway".

(Isaiah 12:1) And in that day thou shalt say, O LORD, I will praise thee: though thou wast angry with me, thine anger is turned away, and thou comfortedst me.

The phrase "that day" refers in particular to the time after the captivity in which Jews would return to Israel (based on the reference to the remnant); and it refers in general to the time of redemption for those chosen of God for redemption.

(Isaiah 12:2) Behold, God is my salvation; I will trust, and not be afraid: for the LORD JEHOVAH is my strength and my song; he also is become my salvation.

(Isaiah 12:3) Therefore with joy shall ye draw water out of the wells of salvation.

(Isaiah 12:4) And in that day shall ye say, Praise the LORD, call upon his name, declare his doings among the people, make mention that his name is exalted.

(Isaiah 12:5) Sing unto the LORD; for he hath done excellent things: this is known in all the earth.

It is fitting and proper for those who have been redeemed of God should sing praises to God.

(Isaiah 12:6) Cry out and shout, thou inhabitant of Zion: for great is the Holy One of Israel in the midst of thee.

Those of Israel who are redeemed will praise God for their redemption. Notice that

(Isaiah 13:10) For the stars of heaven and the constellations thereof shall not give their light: the sun shall be darkened in his going forth, and the moon shall not cause her light to shine.

God is great because he judges sin. During war these natural events occur: the moon and stars can't be seen because of the smoke and dust in the air; the sun is darkened but still visible. At the second coming of Christ there will be similar phenomena. The second coming of Christ is not a single quick event; there are various phases to it.

(Isaiah 13:11) And I will punish the world for their evil, and the wicked for their iniquity; and I will cause the arrogancy of the proud to cease, and will lay low the haughtiness of the terrible.

(Isaiah 13:12) I will make a man more precious than fine gold; even a man than the golden wedge of Ophir.

A lot of Israelites will die during the battles.

(Isaiah 13:13) Therefore I will shake the heavens, and the earth shall remove out of her place, in the wrath of the LORD of hosts, and in the day of his fierce anger.

More natural events: the sky will shake and the earth will move. This could be caused by the mayhem and carnage of the battle in which buildings are destroyed and hordes of horsemen come stampede across the land. The earth shakes from a train passing by, I imaging it would also shake from a great battle. As the victims are falling down they would see what looks like the sky shaking; actually it is their head that is doing the shaking.

During the second coming of Christ these natural phenomena will occur due to the disintegration of the universe as sin is wrenched out of it.

(Isaiah 14:1) For the LORD will have mercy on Jacob, and will yet choose Israel, and set them in their own land: and the strangers shall be joined with them, and they shall cleave to the house of Jacob.

Israel will again resettle the land. The two kingdoms will be reunited. Strangers will be allowed to live there. This literally occurred in the time of Cyrus and after.

(Isaiah 14:2) And the people shall take them, and bring them to their place: and the house of Israel shall possess them in the land of the LORD for servants and handmaids: and they shall take them captives, whose captives they were; and they shall rule over their oppressors.

(Isaiah 14:3) And it shall come to pass in the day that the LORD shall give thee rest from thy sorrow, and from thy fear, and from the hard bondage wherein thou wast made to serve.

(Isaiah 14:4) That thou shalt take up this proverb against the king of Babylon, and say, How hath the oppressor ceased! the golden city ceased!

(Isaiah 14:5) The LORD hath broken the staff of the wicked, and the sceptre of the rulers.

(Isaiah 14:6) He who smote the people in wrath with a continual stroke, he that ruled the nations in anger, is persecuted, and none hindereth.

(Isaiah 14:7) The whole earth is at rest, and is quiet: they break forth into singing.

(Isaiah 14:8) Yea, the fir trees rejoice at thee, and the cedars of Lebanon, saying, Since thou art laid down, no feller is come up against us.

(Isaiah 14:9) Hell from beneath is moved for thee to meet thee at thy coming: it stirreth up the dead for thee, even all the chief ones of the earth; it hath raised up from their thrones all the kings of the nations.

(Isaiah 14:10) All they shall speak and say unto thee, Art thou also become weak as we? art thou become like unto us?

(Isaiah 14:11) Thy pomp is brought down to the grave, and the noise of thy viols: the worm is spread under thee, and the worms cover thee.

(Isaiah 14:12) How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning! how art thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations!

The topic suddenly shifts to a description of Lucifer's fall from grace. In speaking of the particular issues occurring in his day and after, Isaiah also comments on the larger picture: such topics as the influence of the wicked spirit beings, the sinfulness of man, the second coming, the future state of glory.

(Isaiah 14:13) For thou hast said in thine heart, I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God: I will sit also upon the mount of the congregation, in the sides of the north:

(Isaiah 14:14) I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like the most High.

(Isaiah 14:15) Yet thou shalt be brought down to hell, to the sides of the pit.

This verse and the verses following refer both to Lucifer and the king of Babylon who conquered Israel.

(Isaiah 14:16) They that see thee shall narrowly look upon thee, and consider thee, saying, Is this the man that made the earth to tremble, that did shake kingdoms;

(Isaiah 14:17) That made the world as a wilderness, and destroyed the cities thereof; that opened not the house of his prisoners?

(Isaiah 14:18) All the kings of the nations, even all of them, lie in glory, every one in his own house.

(Isaiah 14:19) But thou art cast out of thy grave like an abominable branch, and as the raiment of those that are slain, thrust through with a sword, that go down to the stones of the pit; as a carcase trodden under feet.

(Isaiah 14:20) Thou shalt not be joined with them in burial, because thou hast destroyed thy land, and slain thy people: the seed of evildoers shall never be renowned.

(Isaiah 14:21) Prepare slaughter for his children for the iniquity of their fathers; that they do not rise, nor possess the land, nor fill the face of the world with cities.

(Isaiah 14:22) For I will rise up against them, saith the LORD of hosts, and cut off from Babylon the name, and remnant, and son, and nephew, saith the LORD.

(Isaiah 14:23) I will also make it a possession for the bittern, and pools of water: and I will sweep it with the besom of destruction, saith the LORD of hosts.

(Isaiah 14:24) The LORD of hosts hath sworn, saying, Surely as I have thought, so shall it come to pass; and as I have purposed, so shall it stand:

(Isaiah 14:25) That I will break the Assyrian in my land, and upon my mountains tread him under foot: then shall his yoke depart from off them, and his burden depart from off their shoulders.

(Isaiah 14:26) This is the purpose that is purposed upon the whole earth: and this is the hand that is stretched out upon all the nations.

(Isaiah 14:27) For the LORD of hosts hath purposed, and who shall disannul it? and his hand is stretched out, and who shall turn it back?

(Isaiah 14:28) In the year that king Ahaz died was this burden.

(Isaiah 14:29) Rejoice not thou, whole Palestina, because the rod of him that smote thee is broken: for out of the serpent's root shall come forth a cockatrice, and his fruit shall be a fiery flying serpent.

(Isaiah 14:30) And the firstborn of the poor shall feed, and the needy shall lie down in safety: and I will kill thy root with famine, and he shall slay thy remnant.

(Isaiah 14:31) Howl, O gate; cry, O city; thou, whole Palestina, art dissolved: for there shall come from the north a smoke, and none shall be alone in his appointed times.

(Isaiah 14:32) What shall one then answer the messengers of the nation? That the LORD hath founded Zion, and the poor of his people shall trust in it.

(Isaiah 16:5) And in mercy shall the throne be established: and he shall sit upon it in truth in the tabernacle of David, judging, and seeking judgment, and hasting righteousness.

(Isaiah 17:10) Because thou hast forgotten the God of thy salvation, and hast not been mindful of the rock of thy strength, therefore shalt thou plant pleasant plants, and shalt set it with strange slips:

(Isaiah 19:19) In that day shall there be an altar to the LORD in the midst of the land of Egypt, and a pillar at the border thereof to the LORD.

(Isaiah 19:23) In that day shall there be a highway out of Egypt to Assyria, and the Assyrian shall come into Egypt, and the Egyptian into Assyria, and the Egyptians shall serve with the Assyrians.

(Isaiah 22:1) The burden of the valley of vision. What aileth thee now, that thou art wholly gone up to the housetops?

(Isaiah 22:2) Thou that art full of stirs, a tumultuous city, a joyous city: thy slain men are not slain with the sword, nor dead in battle.

(Isaiah 22:3) All thy rulers are fled together, they are bound by the archers: all that are found in thee are bound together, which have fled from far.

(Isaiah 22:4) Therefore said I, Look away from me: I will weep bitterly, labour not to comfort me, because of the spoiling of the daughter of my people.

(Isaiah 22:5) For it is a day of trouble, and of treading down, and of perplexity by the Lord GOD of hosts in the valley of vision, breaking down the walls, and of crying to the mountains.

(Isaiah 22:6) And Elam bare the quiver with chariots of men and horsemen, and Kir uncovered the shield.

(Isaiah 22:7) And it shall come to pass, that thy choicest valleys shall be full of chariots, and the horsemen shall set themselves in array at the gate.

(Isaiah 22:8) And he discovered the covering of Judah, and thou didst look in that day to the armour of the house of the forest.

(Isaiah 22:9) Ye have seen also the breaches of the city of David, that they are many: and ye gathered together the waters of the lower pool.

(Isaiah 22:10) And ye have numbered the houses of Jerusalem, and the houses have ye broken down to fortify the wall.

(Isaiah 22:11) Ye made also a ditch between the two walls for the water of the old pool: but ye have not looked unto the maker thereof, neither had respect unto him that fashioned it long ago.

Hezekiah built fortifications in the walls and tanks for water storage in case of a seige.

(2 Chronicles 32:5) Also he [Hezekiah] strengthened himself, and built up all the wall that was broken, and raised it up to the towers, and another wall without, and repaired Millo in the city of David, and made darts and shields in abundance.

(Isaiah 22:12) And in that day did the Lord GOD of hosts call to weeping, and to mourning, and to baldness, and to girding with sackcloth:

(Isaiah 22:13) And behold joy and gladness, slaying oxen, and killing sheep, eating flesh, and drinking wine: let us eat and drink; for to morrow we shall die.

(Isaiah 22:14) And it was revealed in mine ears by the LORD of hosts, Surely this iniquity shall not be purged from you till ye die, saith the Lord GOD of hosts.

(Isaiah 22:15) Thus saith the Lord GOD of hosts, Go, get thee unto this treasurer, even unto Shebna, which is over the house, and say,

(Isaiah 22:16) What hast thou here? and whom hast thou here, that thou hast hewed thee out a sepulchre here, as he that heweth him out a sepulchre on high, and that graveth an habitation for himself in a rock?

(Isaiah 22:17) Behold, the LORD will carry thee away with a mighty captivity, and will surely cover thee.

(Isaiah 22:18) He will surely violently turn and toss thee like a ball into a large country: there shalt thou die, and there the chariots of thy glory shall be the shame of thy lord's house.

(Isaiah 22:19) And I will drive thee from thy station, and from thy state shall he pull thee down.

(Isaiah 22:20) And it shall come to pass in that day, that I will call my servant Eliakim the son of Hilkiah:

(Isaiah 22:21) And I will clothe him with thy robe, and strengthen him with thy girdle, and I will commit thy government into his hand: and he shall be a father to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and to the house of Judah.

(Isaiah 22:22) And the key of the house of David will I lay upon his shoulder; so he shall open, and none shall shut; and he shall shut, and none shall open.

(Isaiah 22:23) And I will fasten him as a nail in a sure place; and he shall be for a glorious throne to his father's house.

(Isaiah 22:24) And they shall hang upon him all the glory of his father's house, the offspring and the issue, all vessels of small quantity, from the vessels of cups, even to all the vessels of flagons.

(Isaiah 22:25) In that day, saith the LORD of hosts, shall the nail that is fastened in the sure place be removed, and be cut down, and fall; and the burden that was upon it shall be cut off: for the LORD hath spoken it.

(Isaiah 23:15) And it shall come to pass in that day, that Tyre shall be forgotten seventy years, according to the days of one king: after the end of seventy years shall Tyre sing as an harlot.

(Isaiah 23:17) And it shall come to pass after the end of seventy years, that the LORD will visit Tyre, and she shall turn to her hire, and shall commit fornication with all the kingdoms of the world upon the face of the earth.

(Isaiah 24:4) The earth mourneth and fadeth away, the world languisheth and fadeth away, the haughty people of the earth do languish.

(Isaiah 24:18) And it shall come to pass, that he who fleeth from the noise of the fear shall fall into the pit; and he that cometh up out of the midst of the pit shall be taken in the snare: for the windows from on high are open, and the foundations of the earth do shake.

(Isaiah 24:19) The earth is utterly broken down, the earth is clean dissolved, the earth is moved exceedingly.

(Isaiah 24:20) The earth shall reel to and fro like a drunkard, and shall be removed like a cottage; and the transgression thereof shall be heavy upon it; and it shall fall, and not rise again.

(Isaiah 24:23) Then the moon shall be confounded, and the sun ashamed, when the LORD of hosts shall reign in mount Zion, and in Jerusalem, and before his ancients gloriously.

(Isaiah 25:6) And in this mountain shall the LORD of hosts make unto all people a feast of fat things, a feast of wines on the lees [aged wine], of fat things full of marrow, of wines on the lees well refined [aged wine that is strained clear].

(Isaiah 25:7) And he will destroy in this mountain the face of the covering cast over all people, and the veil that is spread over all nations.

(Isaiah 25:8) He will swallow up death in victory; and the Lord GOD will wipe away tears from off all faces; and the rebuke of his people shall he take away from off all the earth: for the LORD hath spoken it.

(Isaiah 25:10) For in this mountain shall the hand of the LORD rest, and Moab shall be trodden down under him, even as straw is trodden down for the dunghill.


(Isaiah 26:1) In that day shall this song be sung in the land of Judah; We have a strong city; salvation will God appoint for walls and bulwarks.

(Isaiah 26:2) Open ye the gates, that the righteous nation which keepeth the truth may enter in.

(Isaiah 26:3) Thou wilt keep him in perfect peace, whose mind is stayed on thee: because he trusteth in thee.

(Isaiah 26:4) Trust ye in the LORD for ever: for in the LORD JEHOVAH is everlasting strength:

(Isaiah 26:5) For he bringeth down them that dwell on high; the lofty city, he layeth it low; he layeth it low, even to the ground; he bringeth it even to the dust.

(Isaiah 26:6) The foot shall tread it down, even the feet of the poor, and the steps of the needy.

(Isaiah 26:7) The way of the just is uprightness: thou, most upright, dost weigh the path of the just.

(Isaiah 26:8) Yea, in the way of thy judgments, O LORD, have we waited for thee; the desire of our soul is to thy name, and to the remembrance of thee.

(Isaiah 26:9) With my soul have I desired thee in the night; yea, with my spirit within me will I seek thee early: for when thy judgments are in the earth, the inhabitants of the world will learn righteousness.

(Isaiah 26:10) Let favour be showed to the wicked, yet will he not learn righteousness: in the land of uprightness will he deal unjustly, and will not behold the majesty of the LORD.

(Isaiah 26:11) LORD, when thy hand is lifted up, they will not see: but they shall see, and be ashamed for their envy at the people; yea, the fire of thine enemies shall devour them.

(Isaiah 26:12) LORD, thou wilt ordain peace for us: for thou also hast wrought all our works in us.

(Isaiah 26:13) O LORD our God, other lords beside thee have had dominion over us: but by thee only will we make mention of thy name.

(Isaiah 26:14) They are dead, they shall not live; they are deceased, they shall not rise: therefore hast thou visited and destroyed them, and made all their memory to perish.

(Isaiah 26:15) Thou hast increased the nation, O LORD, thou hast increased the nation: thou art glorified: thou hadst removed it far unto all the ends of the earth.

(Isaiah 26:16) LORD, in trouble have they visited thee, they poured out a prayer when thy chastening was upon them.

(Isaiah 26:17) Like as a woman with child, that draweth near the time of her delivery, is in pain, and crieth out in her pangs; so have we been in thy sight, O LORD.

(Isaiah 26:18) We have been with child, we have been in pain, we have as it were brought forth wind; we have not wrought any deliverance in the earth; neither have the inhabitants of the world fallen.

(Isaiah 26:19) Thy dead men shall live, together with my dead body shall they arise. Awake and sing, ye that dwell in dust: for thy dew is as the dew of herbs, and the earth shall cast out the dead.

(Isaiah 26:20) Come, my people, enter thou into thy chambers, and shut thy doors about thee: hide thyself as it were for a little moment, until the indignation be overpast.

(Isaiah 26:21) For, behold, the LORD cometh out of his place to punish the inhabitants of the earth for their iniquity: the earth also shall disclose her blood, and shall no more cover her slain.

(Isaiah 27:1) In that day the LORD with his sore and great and strong sword shall punish leviathan the piercing serpent, even leviathan that crooked serpent; and he shall slay the dragon that is in the sea.

(Isaiah 27:2) In that day sing ye unto her, A vineyard of red wine.

(Isaiah 27:3) I the LORD do keep it; I will water it every moment: lest any hurt it, I will keep it night and day.

(Isaiah 27:4) Fury is not in me: who would set the briers and thorns against me in battle? I would go through them, I would burn them together.

(Isaiah 27:5) Or let him take hold of my strength, that he may make peace with me; and he shall make peace with me.

(Isaiah 27:6) He shall cause them that come of Jacob to take root: Israel shall blossom and bud, and fill the face of the world with fruit.

(Isaiah 27:7) Hath he smitten him, as he smote those that smote him? or is he slain according to the slaughter of them that are slain by him?

(Isaiah 27:8) In measure, when it shooteth forth, thou wilt debate with it: he stayeth his rough wind in the day of the east wind.

(Isaiah 27:9) By this therefore shall the iniquity of Jacob be purged; and this is all the fruit to take away his sin; when he maketh all the stones of the altar as chalkstones that are beaten in sunder, the groves and images shall not stand up.

(Isaiah 27:10) Yet the defenced city shall be desolate, and the habitation forsaken, and left like a wilderness: there shall the calf feed, and there shall he lie down, and consume the branches thereof.

(Isaiah 27:11) When the boughs thereof are withered, they shall be broken off: the women come, and set them on fire: for it is a people of no understanding: therefore he that made them will not have mercy on them, and he that formed them will show them no favour.

(Isaiah 27:12) And it shall come to pass in that day, that the LORD shall beat off from the channel of the river unto the stream of Egypt, and ye shall be gathered one by one, O ye children of Israel.

(Isaiah 27:13) And it shall come to pass in that day, that the great trumpet shall be blown, and they shall come which were ready to perish in the land of Assyria, and the outcasts in the land of Egypt, and shall worship the LORD in the holy mount at Jerusalem.

(Isaiah 28:1) Woe to the crown of pride, to the drunkards of Ephraim, whose glorious beauty is a fading flower, which are on the head of the fat valleys of them that are overcome with wine!

(Isaiah 28:3) The crown of pride, the drunkards of Ephraim, shall be trodden under feet:

(Isaiah 28:7) But they also have erred through wine, and through strong drink are out of the way; the priest and the prophet have erred through strong drink, they are swallowed up of wine, they are out of the way through strong drink; they err in vision, they stumble in judgment.

(Isaiah 28:8) For all tables are full of vomit and filthiness, so that there is no place clean.

(Isaiah 28:16) Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD, Behold, I lay in Zion for a foundation a stone, a tried stone, a precious corner stone, a sure foundation: he that believeth shall not make haste.

(Isaiah 29:6) Thou shalt be visited of the LORD of hosts with thunder, and with earthquake, and great noise, with storm and tempest, and the flame of devouring fire.

(Isaiah 30:19) For the people shall dwell in Zion at Jerusalem: thou shalt weep no more: he will be very gracious unto thee at the voice of thy cry; when he shall hear it, he will answer thee.

(Isaiah 30:26) Moreover the light of the moon shall be as the light of the sun, and the light of the sun shall be sevenfold, as the light of seven days, in the day that the LORD bindeth up the breach of his people, and healeth the stroke of their wound.

(Isaiah 30:27) Behold, the name of the LORD cometh from far, burning with his anger, and the burden thereof is heavy: his lips are full of indignation, and his tongue as a devouring fire:

(Isaiah 30:28) And his breath, as an overflowing stream, shall reach to the midst of the neck, to sift the nations with the sieve of vanity: and there shall be a bridle in the jaws of the people, causing them to err.

(Isaiah 30:29) Ye shall have a song, as in the night when a holy solemnity is kept; and gladness of heart, as when one goeth with a pipe to come into the mountain of the LORD, to the mighty One of Israel.

(Isaiah 30:30) And the LORD shall cause his glorious voice to be heard, and shall show the lighting down of his arm, with the indignation of his anger, and with the flame of a devouring fire, with scattering, and tempest, and hailstones.

(Isaiah 30:31) For through the voice of the LORD shall the Assyrian be beaten down, which smote with a rod.

(Isaiah 30:32) And in every place where the grounded staff shall pass, which the LORD shall lay upon him, it shall be with tabrets and harps: and in battles of shaking will he fight with it.

(Isaiah 32:1) Behold, a king shall reign in righteousness, and princes shall rule in judgment.

(Isaiah 32:2) And a man shall be as an hiding place from the wind, and a covert from the tempest; as rivers of water in a dry place, as the shadow of a great rock in a weary land.

(Isaiah 32:3) And the eyes of them that see shall not be dim, and the ears of them that hear shall hearken.

(Isaiah 32:4) The heart also of the rash shall understand knowledge, and the tongue of the stammerers shall be ready to speak plainly.

(Isaiah 32:5) The vile person shall be no more called liberal, nor the churl said to be bountiful.

(Isaiah 32:6) For the vile person will speak villany, and his heart will work iniquity, to practice hypocrisy, and to utter error against the LORD, to make empty the soul of the hungry, and he will cause the drink of the thirsty to fail.

(Isaiah 32:7) The instruments also of the churl are evil: he deviseth wicked devices to destroy the poor with lying words, even when the needy speaketh right.

(Isaiah 32:8) But the liberal deviseth liberal things; and by liberal things shall he stand.

(Isaiah 32:9) Rise up, ye women that are at ease; hear my voice, ye careless daughters; give ear unto my speech.

(Isaiah 32:10) Many days and years shall ye be troubled, ye careless women: for the vintage shall fail, the gathering shall not come.

(Isaiah 32:11) Tremble, ye women that are at ease; be troubled, ye careless ones: strip you, and make you bare, and gird sackcloth upon your loins.

(Isaiah 32:12) They shall lament for the teats, for the pleasant fields, for the fruitful vine.

(Isaiah 32:13) Upon the land of my people shall come up thorns and briers; yea, upon all the houses of joy in the joyous city:

(Isaiah 32:14) Because the palaces shall be forsaken; the multitude of the city shall be left; the forts and towers shall be for dens for ever, a joy of wild asses, a pasture of flocks;

(Isaiah 32:15) Until the spirit be poured upon us from on high, and the wilderness be a fruitful field, and the fruitful field be counted for a forest.

(Isaiah 32:16) Then judgment shall dwell in the wilderness, and righteousness remain in the fruitful field.

(Isaiah 32:17) And the work of righteousness shall be peace; and the effect of righteousness quietness and assurance for ever.

(Isaiah 32:18) And my people shall dwell in a peaceable habitation, and in sure dwellings, and in quiet resting places;

(Isaiah 32:19) When it shall hail, coming down on the forest; and the city shall be low in a low place.

(Isaiah 32:20) Blessed are ye that sow beside all waters, that send forth thither the feet of the ox and the ass.

(Isaiah 33:20) Look upon Zion, the city of our solemnities: thine eyes shall see Jerusalem a quiet habitation, a tabernacle that shall not be taken down; not one of the stakes thereof shall ever be removed, neither shall any of the cords thereof be broken.

(Isaiah 34:4) And all the host of heaven shall be dissolved, and the heavens shall be rolled together as a scroll: and all their host shall fall down, as the leaf falleth off from the vine, and as a falling fig from the fig tree.

(Isaiah 34:5) For my sword shall be bathed in heaven: behold, it shall come down upon Idumea, and upon the people of my curse, to judgment.

(Isaiah 34:6) The sword of the LORD is filled with blood, it is made fat with fatness, and with the blood of lambs and goats, with the fat of the kidneys of rams: for the LORD hath a sacrifice in Bozrah, and a great slaughter in the land of Idumea.

(Isaiah 34:7) And the unicorns shall come down with them, and the bullocks with the bulls; and their land shall be soaked with blood, and their dust made fat with fatness.

(Isaiah 34:8) For it is the day of the Lord's vengeance, and the year of recompenses for the controversy of Zion.

(Isaiah 34:9) And the streams thereof shall be turned into pitch, and the dust thereof into brimstone, and the land thereof shall become burning pitch.

(Isaiah 34:10) It shall not be quenched night nor day; the smoke thereof shall go up for ever: from generation to generation it shall lie waste; none shall pass through it for ever and ever.

(Isaiah 34:11) But the cormorant and the bittern shall possess it; the owl also and the raven shall dwell in it: and he shall stretch out upon it the line of confusion, and the stones of emptiness.

(Isaiah 34:12) They shall call the nobles thereof to the kingdom, but none shall be there, and all her princes shall be nothing.

(Isaiah 34:13) And thorns shall come up in her palaces, nettles and brambles in the fortresses thereof: and it shall be an habitation of dragons, and a court for owls.

(Isaiah 34:14) The wild beasts of the desert shall also meet with the wild beasts of the island, and the satyr shall cry to his fellow; the screech owl also shall rest there, and find for herself a place of rest.

(Isaiah 34:15) There shall the great owl make her nest, and lay, and hatch, and gather under her shadow: there shall the vultures also be gathered, every one with her mate.

(Isaiah 34:16) Seek ye out of the book of the LORD, and read: no one of these shall fail, none shall want her mate: for my mouth it hath commanded, and his spirit it hath gathered them.

(Isaiah 34:17) And he hath cast the lot for them, and his hand hath divided it unto them by line: they shall possess it for ever, from generation to generation shall they dwell therein.

(Isaiah 35:1) The wilderness and the solitary place shall be glad for them; and the desert shall rejoice, and blossom as the rose.

(Isaiah 35:2) It shall blossom abundantly, and rejoice even with joy and singing: the glory of Lebanon shall be given unto it, the excellency of Carmel and Sharon, they shall see the glory of the LORD, and the excellency of our God.

(Isaiah 35:3) Strengthen ye the weak hands, and confirm the feeble knees.

(Isaiah 35:4) Say to them that are of a fearful heart, Be strong, fear not: behold, your God will come with vengeance, even God with a recompense; he will come and save you.

(Isaiah 35:5) Then the eyes of the blind shall be opened, and the ears of the deaf shall be unstopped.

(Isaiah 35:6) Then shall the lame man leap as an hart, and the tongue of the dumb sing: for in the wilderness shall waters break out, and streams in the desert.

(Isaiah 35:7) And the parched ground shall become a pool, and the thirsty land springs of water: in the habitation of dragons, where each lay, shall be grass with reeds and rushes.

(Isaiah 35:8) And an highway shall be there, and a way, and it shall be called The way of holiness; the unclean shall not pass over it; but it shall be for those: the wayfaring men, though fools, shall not err therein.

(Isaiah 35:9) No lion shall be there, nor any ravenous beast shall go up thereon, it shall not be found there; but the redeemed shall walk there:

(Isaiah 35:10) And the ransomed of the LORD shall return, and come to Zion with songs and everlasting joy upon their heads: they shall obtain joy and gladness, and sorrow and sighing shall flee away.

(Isaiah 40:3) The voice of him that crieth in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the LORD, make straight in the desert a highway for our God.

(Isaiah 40:4) Every valley shall be exalted, and every mountain and hill shall be made low: and the crooked shall be made straight, and the rough places plain:

(Isaiah 40:5) And the glory of the LORD shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together: for the mouth of the LORD hath spoken it.

(Isaiah 40:6) The voice said, Cry. And he said, What shall I cry? All flesh is grass, and all the goodliness thereof is as the flower of the field:

(Isaiah 40:7) The grass withereth, the flower fadeth: because the spirit of the LORD bloweth upon it: surely the people is grass.

(Isaiah 40:8) The grass withereth, the flower fadeth: but the word of our God shall stand for ever.

(Isaiah 40:9) O Zion, that bringest good tidings, get thee up into the high mountain; O Jerusalem, that bringest good tidings, lift up thy voice with strength; lift it up, be not afraid; say unto the cities of Judah, Behold your God!

(Isaiah 40:10) Behold, the Lord GOD will come with strong hand, and his arm shall rule for him: behold, his reward is with him, and his work before him.

(Isaiah 40:11) He shall feed his flock like a shepherd: he shall gather the lambs with his arm, and carry them in his bosom, and shall gently lead those that are with young.

(Isaiah 40:12) Who hath measured the waters in the hollow of his hand, and meted out heaven with the span, and comprehended the dust of the earth in a measure, and weighed the mountains in scales, and the hills in a balance?

(Isaiah 40:13) Who hath directed the Spirit of the LORD, or being his counsellor hath taught him?

(Isaiah 40:14) With whom took he counsel, and who instructed him, and taught him in the path of judgment, and taught him knowledge, and showed to him the way of understanding?

(Isaiah 40:15) Behold, the nations are as a drop of a bucket, and are counted as the small dust of the balance: behold, he taketh up the isles as a very little thing.

(Isaiah 40:16) And Lebanon is not sufficient to burn, nor the beasts thereof sufficient for a burnt offering.

(Isaiah 40:17) All nations before him are as nothing; and they are counted to him less than nothing, and vanity.

(Isaiah 40:18) To whom then will ye liken God? or what likeness will ye compare unto him?

(Isaiah 40:19) The workman melteth a graven image, and the goldsmith spreadeth it over with gold, and casteth silver chains.

(Isaiah 40:20) He that is so impoverished that he hath no oblation chooseth a tree that will not rot; he seeketh unto him a cunning workman to prepare a graven image, that shall not be moved.

(Isaiah 40:21) Have ye not known? have ye not heard? hath it not been told you from the beginning? have ye not understood from the foundations of the earth?

(Isaiah 40:22) It is he that sitteth upon the circle of the earth, and the inhabitants thereof are as grasshoppers; that stretcheth out the heavens as a curtain, and spreadeth them out as a tent to dwell in:

(Isaiah 41:1) Keep silence before me, O islands; and let the people renew their strength: let them come near; then let them speak: let us come near together to judgment.

(Isaiah 41:2) Who raised up the righteous man from the east, called him to his foot, gave the nations before him, and made him rule over kings? he gave them as the dust to his sword, and as driven stubble to his bow.

(Isaiah 41:3) He pursued them, and passed safely; even by the way that he had not gone with his feet.

(Isaiah 41:4) Who hath wrought and done it, calling the generations from the beginning? I the LORD, the first, and with the last; I am he.

(Isaiah 41:5) The isles saw it, and feared; the ends of the earth were afraid, drew near, and came.

(Isaiah 41:6) They helped every one his neighbour; and every one said to his brother, Be of good courage.

(Isaiah 41:7) So the carpenter encouraged the goldsmith, and he that smootheth with the hammer him that smote the anvil, saying, It is ready for the soldering: and he fastened it with nails, that it should not be moved.

(Isaiah 41:8) But thou, Israel, art my servant, Jacob whom I have chosen, the seed of Abraham my friend.

(Isaiah 41:9) Thou whom I have taken from the ends of the earth, and called thee from the chief men thereof, and said unto thee, Thou art my servant; I have chosen thee, and not cast thee away.

(Isaiah 41:10) Fear thou not; for I am with thee: be not dismayed; for I am thy God: I will strengthen thee; yea, I will help thee; yea, I will uphold thee with the right hand of my righteousness.

(Isaiah 41:11) Behold, all they that were incensed against thee shall be ashamed and confounded: they shall be as nothing; and they that strive with thee shall perish.

(Isaiah 41:12) Thou shalt seek them, and shalt not find them, even them that contended with thee: they that war against thee shall be as nothing, and as a thing of nought.

(Isaiah 41:13) For I the LORD thy God will hold thy right hand, saying unto thee, Fear not; I will help thee.

(Isaiah 41:14) Fear not, thou worm Jacob, and ye men of Israel; I will help thee, saith the LORD, and thy redeemer, the Holy One of Israel.

(Isaiah 41:15) Behold, I will make thee a new sharp threshing instrument having teeth: thou shalt thresh the mountains, and beat them small, and shalt make the hills as chaff.

(Isaiah 41:16) Thou shalt fan them, and the wind shall carry them away, and the whirlwind shall scatter them: and thou shalt rejoice in the LORD, and shalt glory in the Holy One of Israel.

(Isaiah 41:17) When the poor and needy seek water, and there is none, and their tongue faileth for thirst, I the LORD will hear them, I the God of Israel will not forsake them.

(Isaiah 41:18) I will open rivers in high places, and fountains in the midst of the valleys: I will make the wilderness a pool of water, and the dry land springs of water.

(Isaiah 41:19) I will plant in the wilderness the cedar, the shittah tree, and the myrtle, and the oil tree; I will set in the desert the fir tree, and the pine, and the box tree together:

(Isaiah 41:20) That they may see, and know, and consider, and understand together, that the hand of the LORD hath done this, and the Holy One of Israel hath created it.

(Isaiah 41:21) Produce your cause, saith the LORD; bring forth your strong reasons, saith the King of Jacob.

(Isaiah 41:22) Let them bring them forth, and show us what shall happen: let them show the former things, what they be, that we may consider them, and know the latter end of them; or declare us things for to come.

(Isaiah 41:23) Show the things that are to come hereafter, that we may know that ye are gods: yea, do good, or do evil, that we may be dismayed, and behold it together.

(Isaiah 41:24) Behold, ye are of nothing, and your work of nought: an abomination is he that chooseth you.

(Isaiah 41:25) I have raised up one from the north, and he shall come: from the rising of the sun shall he call upon my name: and he shall come upon princes as upon mortar, and as the potter treadeth clay.

(Isaiah 41:26) Who hath declared from the beginning, that we may know? and beforetime, that we may say, He is righteous? yea, there is none that showeth, yea, there is none that declareth, yea, there is none that heareth your words.

(Isaiah 41:27) The first shall say to Zion, Behold, behold them: and I will give to Jerusalem one that bringeth good tidings.

(Isaiah 41:28) For I beheld, and there was no man; even among them, and there was no counsellor, that, when I asked of them, could answer a word.

(Isaiah 41:29) Behold, they are all vanity; their works are nothing: their molten images are wind and confusion.

(Isaiah 42:1) Behold my servant, whom I uphold; mine elect, in whom my soul delighteth; I have put my spirit upon him: he shall bring forth judgment to the Gentiles.

(Isaiah 42:2) He shall not cry, nor lift up, nor cause his voice to be heard in the street.

(Isaiah 42:3) A bruised reed shall he not break, and the smoking flax shall he not quench: he shall bring forth judgment unto truth.

(Isaiah 42:4) He shall not fail nor be discouraged, till he have set judgment in the earth: and the isles shall wait for his law.

(Isaiah 42:5) Thus saith God the LORD, he that created the heavens, and stretched them out; he that spread forth the earth, and that which cometh out of it; he that giveth breath unto the people upon it, and spirit to them that walk therein:

(Isaiah 42:6) I the LORD have called thee in righteousness, and will hold thine hand, and will keep thee, and give thee for a covenant of the people, for a light of the Gentiles;

(Isaiah 42:7) To open the blind eyes, to bring out the prisoners from the prison, and them that sit in darkness out of the prison house.

(Isaiah 42:8) I am the LORD: that is my name: and my glory will I not give to another, neither my praise to graven images.

(Isaiah 42:9) Behold, the former things are come to pass, and new things do I declare: before they spring forth I tell you of them.

(Isaiah 42:10) Sing unto the LORD a new song, and his praise from the end of the earth, ye that go down to the sea, and all that is therein; the isles, and the inhabitants thereof.

(Isaiah 42:11) Let the wilderness and the cities thereof lift up their voice, the villages that Kedar doth inhabit: let the inhabitants of the rock sing, let them shout from the top of the mountains.

(Isaiah 42:12) Let them give glory unto the LORD, and declare his praise in the islands.

(Isaiah 42:13) The LORD shall go forth as a mighty man, he shall stir up jealousy like a man of war: he shall cry, yea, roar; he shall prevail against his enemies.

(Isaiah 42:14) I have long time holden my peace; I have been still, and refrained myself: now will I cry like a travailing woman; I will destroy and devour at once.

(Isaiah 42:15) I will make waste mountains and hills, and dry up all their herbs; and I will make the rivers islands, and I will dry up the pools.

(Isaiah 42:16) And I will bring the blind by a way that they knew not; I will lead them in paths that they have not known: I will make darkness light before them, and crooked things straight. These things will I do unto them, and not forsake them.

(Isaiah 42:17) They shall be turned back, they shall be greatly ashamed, that trust in graven images, that say to the molten images, Ye are our gods.

(Isaiah 42:18) Hear, ye deaf; and look, ye blind, that ye may see.

(Isaiah 42:19) Who is blind, but my servant? or deaf, as my messenger that I sent? who is blind as he that is perfect, and blind as the Lord's servant?

(Isaiah 42:20) Seeing many things, but thou observest not; opening the ears, but he heareth not.

(Isaiah 42:21) The LORD is well pleased for his righteousness' sake; he will magnify the law, and make it honourable.

(Isaiah 42:22) But this is a people robbed and spoiled; they are all of them snared in holes, and they are hid in prison houses: they are for a prey, and none delivereth; for a spoil, and none saith, Restore.

(Isaiah 42:23) Who among you will give ear to this? who will hearken and hear for the time to come?

(Isaiah 42:24) Who gave Jacob for a spoil, and Israel to the robbers? did not the LORD, he against whom we have sinned? for they would not walk in his ways, neither were they obedient unto his law.

(Isaiah 42:25) Therefore he hath poured upon him the fury of his anger, and the strength of battle: and it hath set him on fire round about, yet he knew not; and it burned him, yet he laid it not to heart.

(Isaiah 43:1) But now thus saith the LORD that created thee, O Jacob, and he that formed thee, O Israel, Fear not: for I have redeemed thee, I have called thee by thy name; thou art mine.

(Isaiah 43:2) When thou passest through the waters, I will be with thee; and through the rivers, they shall not overflow thee: when thou walkest through the fire, thou shalt not be burned; neither shall the flame kindle upon thee.

(Isaiah 43:3) For I am the LORD thy God, the Holy One of Israel, thy Saviour: I gave Egypt for thy ransom, Ethiopia and Seba for thee.

(Isaiah 43:4) Since thou wast precious in my sight, thou hast been honourable, and I have loved thee: therefore will I give men for thee, and people for thy life.

(Isaiah 43:5) Fear not: for I am with thee: I will bring thy seed from the east, and gather thee from the west;

(Isaiah 43:6) I will say to the north, Give up; and to the south, Keep not back: bring my sons from far, and my daughters from the ends of the earth;

(Isaiah 43:7) Even every one that is called by my name: for I have created him for my glory, I have formed him; yea, I have made him.

(Isaiah 43:8) Bring forth the blind people that have eyes, and the deaf that have ears.

(Isaiah 43:9) Let all the nations be gathered together, and let the people be assembled: who among them can declare this, and show us former things? let them bring forth their witnesses, that they may be justified: or let them hear, and say, It is truth.

(Isaiah 43:10) Ye are my witnesses, saith the LORD, and my servant whom I have chosen: that ye may know and believe me, and understand that I am he: before me there was no God formed, neither shall there be after me.

(Isaiah 43:11) I, even I, am the LORD; and beside me there is no saviour.

(Isaiah 43:12) I have declared, and have saved, and I have showed, when there was no strange god among you: therefore ye are my witnesses, saith the LORD, that I am God.

(Isaiah 43:13) Yea, before the day was I am he; and there is none that can deliver out of my hand: I will work, and who shall let it?

(Isaiah 43:14) Thus saith the LORD, your redeemer, the Holy One of Israel; For your sake I have sent to Babylon, and have brought down all their nobles, and the Chaldeans, whose cry is in the ships.

(Isaiah 43:15) I am the LORD, your Holy One, the creator of Israel, your King.

(Isaiah 43:16) Thus saith the LORD, which maketh a way in the sea, and a path in the mighty waters;

(Isaiah 43:17) Which bringeth forth the chariot and horse, the army and the power; they shall lie down together, they shall not rise: they are extinct, they are quenched as tow.

(Isaiah 43:18) Remember ye not the former things, neither consider the things of old.

(Isaiah 43:19) Behold, I will do a new thing; now it shall spring forth; shall ye not know it? I will even make a way in the wilderness, and rivers in the desert.

(Isaiah 43:20) The beast of the field shall honour me, the dragons and the owls: because I give waters in the wilderness, and rivers in the desert, to give drink to my people, my chosen.

(Isaiah 43:21) This people have I formed for myself; they shall show forth my praise.

(Isaiah 43:22) But thou hast not called upon me, O Jacob; but thou hast been weary of me, O Israel.

(Isaiah 43:23) Thou hast not brought me the small cattle of thy burnt offerings; neither hast thou honoured me with thy sacrifices. I have not caused thee to serve with an offering, nor wearied thee with incense.

(Isaiah 43:24) Thou hast bought me no sweet cane with money, neither hast thou filled me with the fat of thy sacrifices: but thou hast made me to serve with thy sins, thou hast wearied me with thine iniquities.

(Isaiah 43:25) I, even I, am he that blotteth out thy transgressions for mine own sake, and will not remember thy sins.

(Isaiah 43:26) Put me in remembrance: let us plead together: declare thou, that thou mayest be justified.

(Isaiah 43:27) Thy first father hath sinned, and thy teachers have transgressed against me.

(Isaiah 43:28) Therefore I have profaned the princes of the sanctuary, and have given Jacob to the curse, and Israel to reproaches.

(Isaiah 44:1) Yet now hear, O Jacob my servant; and Israel, whom I have chosen:

(Isaiah 44:2) Thus saith the LORD that made thee, and formed thee from the womb, which will help thee; Fear not, O Jacob, my servant; and thou, Jesurun, whom I have chosen.

(Isaiah 44:3) For I will pour water upon him that is thirsty, and floods upon the dry ground: I will pour my spirit upon thy seed, and my blessing upon thine offspring:

(Isaiah 44:4) And they shall spring up as among the grass, as willows by the water courses.

(Isaiah 44:5) One shall say, I am the Lord's; and another shall call himself by the name of Jacob; and another shall subscribe with his hand unto the LORD, and surname himself by the name of Israel.

(Isaiah 44:6) Thus saith the LORD the King of Israel, and his redeemer the LORD of hosts; I am the first, and I am the last; and beside me there is no God.

(Isaiah 44:7) And who, as I, shall call, and shall declare it, and set it in order for me, since I appointed the ancient people? and the things that are coming, and shall come, let them show unto them.

(Isaiah 44:8) Fear ye not, neither be afraid: have not I told thee from that time, and have declared it? ye are even my witnesses. Is there a God beside me? yea, there is no God; I know not any.

(Isaiah 44:9) They that make a graven image are all of them vanity; and their delectable things shall not profit; and they are their own witnesses; they see not, nor know; that they may be ashamed.

(Isaiah 44:10) Who hath formed a god, or molten a graven image that is profitable for nothing?

(Isaiah 44:11) Behold, all his fellows shall be ashamed: and the workmen, they are of men: let them all be gathered together, let them stand up; yet they shall fear, and they shall be ashamed together.

(Isaiah 44:12) The smith with the tongs both worketh in the coals, and fashioneth it with hammers, and worketh it with the strength of his arms: yea, he is hungry, and his strength faileth: he drinketh no water, and is faint.

(Isaiah 44:13) The carpenter stretcheth out his rule; he marketh it out with a line; he fitteth it with planes, and he marketh it out with the compass, and maketh it after the figure of a man, according to the beauty of a man; that it may remain in the house.

(Isaiah 44:14) He heweth him down cedars, and taketh the cypress and the oak, which he strengtheneth for himself among the trees of the forest: he planteth an ash, and the rain doth nourish it.

(Isaiah 44:15) Then shall it be for a man to burn: for he will take thereof, and warm himself; yea, he kindleth it, and baketh bread; yea, he maketh a god, and worshippeth it; he maketh it a graven image, and falleth down thereto.

(Isaiah 44:16) He burneth part thereof in the fire; with part thereof he eateth flesh; he roasteth roast, and is satisfied: yea, he warmeth himself, and saith, Aha, I am warm, I have seen the fire:

(Isaiah 44:17) And the residue thereof he maketh a god, even his graven image: he falleth down unto it, and worshippeth it, and prayeth unto it, and saith, Deliver me; for thou art my god.

(Isaiah 44:18) They have not known nor understood: for he hath shut their eyes, that they cannot see; and their hearts, that they cannot understand.

(Isaiah 44:19) And none considereth in his heart, neither is there knowledge nor understanding to say, I have burned part of it in the fire; yea, also I have baked bread upon the coals thereof; I have roasted flesh, and eaten it: and shall I make the residue thereof an abomination? shall I fall down to the stock of a tree?

(Isaiah 44:20) He feedeth on ashes: a deceived heart hath turned him aside, that he cannot deliver his soul, nor say, Is there not a lie in my right hand?

(Isaiah 44:21) Remember these, O Jacob and Israel; for thou art my servant: I have formed thee; thou art my servant: O Israel, thou shalt not be forgotten of me.

(Isaiah 44:22) I have blotted out, as a thick cloud, thy transgressions, and, as a cloud, thy sins: return unto me; for I have redeemed thee.

(Isaiah 44:23) Sing, O ye heavens; for the LORD hath done it: shout, ye lower parts of the earth: break forth into singing, ye mountains, O forest, and every tree therein: for the LORD hath redeemed Jacob, and glorified himself in Israel.

(Isaiah 44:24) Thus saith the LORD, thy redeemer, and he that formed thee from the womb, I am the LORD that maketh all things; that stretcheth forth the heavens alone; that spreadeth abroad the earth by myself;

(Isaiah 44:25) That frustrateth the tokens of the liars, and maketh diviners mad; that turneth wise men backward, and maketh their knowledge foolish;

(Isaiah 44:26) That confirmeth the word of his servant, and performeth the counsel of his messengers; that saith to Jerusalem, Thou shalt be inhabited; and to the cities of Judah, Ye shall be built, and I will raise up the decayed places thereof:

(Isaiah 44:27) That saith to the deep, Be dry, and I will dry up thy rivers:

(Isaiah 44:28) That saith of Cyrus, He is my shepherd, and shall perform all my pleasure: even saying to Jerusalem, Thou shalt be built; and to the temple, Thy foundation shall be laid.

(Isaiah 45:1) Thus saith the LORD to his anointed, to Cyrus, whose right hand I have holden, to subdue nations before him; and I will loose the loins of kings, to open before him the two leaved gates; and the gates shall not be shut;

(Isaiah 45:2) I will go before thee, and make the crooked places straight: I will break in pieces the gates of brass, and cut in sunder the bars of iron:

(Isaiah 45:3) And I will give thee the treasures of darkness, and hidden riches of secret places, that thou mayest know that I, the LORD, which call thee by thy name, am the God of Israel.

(Isaiah 45:4) For Jacob my servant's sake, and Israel mine elect, I have even called thee by thy name: I have surnamed thee, though thou hast not known me.

(Isaiah 45:5) I am the LORD, and there is none else, there is no God beside me: I girded thee, though thou hast not known me:

(Isaiah 45:6) That they may know from the rising of the sun, and from the west, that there is none beside me. I am the LORD, and there is none else.

(Isaiah 45:7) I form the light, and create darkness: I make peace, and create evil: I the LORD do all these things.

(Isaiah 45:8) Drop down, ye heavens, from above, and let the skies pour down righteousness: let the earth open, and let them bring forth salvation, and let righteousness spring up together; I the LORD have created it.

(Isaiah 45:9) Woe unto him that striveth with his Maker! Let the potsherd strive with the potsherds of the earth. Shall the clay say to him that fashioneth it, What makest thou? or thy work, He hath no hands?

(Isaiah 45:10) Woe unto him that saith unto his father, What begettest thou? or to the woman, What hast thou brought forth?

(Isaiah 45:11) Thus saith the LORD, the Holy One of Israel, and his Maker, Ask me of things to come concerning my sons, and concerning the work of my hands command ye me.

(Isaiah 45:12) I have made the earth, and created man upon it: I, even my hands, have stretched out the heavens, and all their host have I commanded.

(Isaiah 45:13) I have raised him up in righteousness, and I will direct all his ways: he shall build my city, and he shall let go my captives, not for price nor reward, saith the LORD of hosts.

(Isaiah 45:14) Thus saith the LORD, The labour of Egypt, and merchandise of Ethiopia and of the Sabeans, men of stature, shall come over unto thee, and they shall be thine: they shall come after thee; in chains they shall come over, and they shall fall down unto thee, they shall make supplication unto thee, saying, Surely God is in thee; and there is none else, there is no God.

(Isaiah 45:15) Verily thou art a God that hidest thyself, O God of Israel, the Saviour.

(Isaiah 45:16) They shall be ashamed, and also confounded, all of them: they shall go to confusion together that are makers of idols.

(Isaiah 45:17) But Israel shall be saved in the LORD with an everlasting salvation: ye shall not be ashamed nor confounded world without end.

(Isaiah 45:18) For thus saith the LORD that created the heavens; God himself that formed the earth and made it; he hath established it, he created it not in vain, he formed it to be inhabited: I am the LORD; and there is none else.

(Isaiah 45:19) I have not spoken in secret, in a dark place of the earth: I said not unto the seed of Jacob, Seek ye me in vain: I the LORD speak righteousness, I declare things that are right.

(Isaiah 45:20) Assemble yourselves and come; draw near together, ye that are escaped of the nations: they have no knowledge that set up the wood of their graven image, and pray unto a god that cannot save.

(Isaiah 45:21) Tell ye, and bring them near; yea, let them take counsel together: who hath declared this from ancient time? who hath told it from that time? have not I the LORD? and there is no God else beside me; a just God and a Saviour; there is none beside me.

(Isaiah 45:22) Look unto me, and be ye saved, all the ends of the earth: for I am God, and there is none else.

(Isaiah 45:23) I have sworn by myself, the word is gone out of my mouth in righteousness, and shall not return, That unto me every knee shall bow, every tongue shall swear.

(Isaiah 45:24) Surely, shall one say, in the LORD have I righteousness and strength: even to him shall men come; and all that are incensed against him shall be ashamed.

(Isaiah 45:25) In the LORD shall all the seed of Israel be justified, and shall glory.

(Isaiah 49:1) Listen, O isles, unto me; and hearken, ye people, from far; The LORD hath called me from the womb; from the bowels of my mother hath he made mention of my name.

(Isaiah 49:2) And he hath made my mouth like a sharp sword; in the shadow of his hand hath he hid me, and made me a polished shaft; in his quiver hath he hid me;

(Isaiah 49:3) And said unto me, Thou art my servant, O Israel, in whom I will be glorified.

(Isaiah 49:4) Then I said, I have laboured in vain, I have spent my strength for nought, and in vain: yet surely my judgment is with the LORD, and my work with my God.

(Isaiah 49:5) And now, saith the LORD that formed me from the womb to be his servant, to bring Jacob again to him, Though Israel be not gathered, yet shall I be glorious in the eyes of the LORD, and my God shall be my strength.

(Isaiah 49:6) And he said, It is a light thing that thou shouldest be my servant to raise up the tribes of Jacob, and to restore the preserved of Israel: I will also give thee for a light to the Gentiles, that thou mayest be my salvation unto the end of the earth.

(Isaiah 49:7) Thus saith the LORD, the Redeemer of Israel, and his Holy One, to him whom man despiseth, to him whom the nation abhorreth, to a servant of rulers, Kings shall see and arise, princes also shall worship, because of the LORD that is faithful, and the Holy One of Israel, and he shall choose thee.

(Isaiah 49:8) Thus saith the LORD, In an acceptable time have I heard thee, and in a day of salvation have I helped thee: and I will preserve thee, and give thee for a covenant of the people, to establish the earth, to cause to inherit the desolate heritages;

(Isaiah 49:9) That thou mayest say to the prisoners, Go forth; to them that are in darkness, Show yourselves. They shall feed in the ways, and their pastures shall be in all high places.

(Isaiah 49:10) They shall not hunger nor thirst; neither shall the heat nor sun smite them: for he that hath mercy on them shall lead them, even by the springs of water shall he guide them.

(Isaiah 49:11) And I will make all my mountains a way, and my highways shall be exalted.

(Isaiah 49:12) Behold, these shall come from far: and, lo, these from the north and from the west; and these from the land of Sinim.

(Isaiah 49:13) Sing, O heavens; and be joyful, O earth; and break forth into singing, O mountains: for the LORD hath comforted his people, and will have mercy upon his afflicted.

(Isaiah 49:14) But Zion said, The LORD hath forsaken me, and my Lord hath forgotten me.

(Isaiah 49:15) Can a woman forget her sucking child, that she should not have compassion on the son of her womb? yea, they may forget, yet will I not forget thee.

(Isaiah 49:16) Behold, I have graven thee upon the palms of my hands; thy walls are continually before me.

(Isaiah 49:17) Thy children shall make haste; thy destroyers and they that made thee waste shall go forth of thee.

(Isaiah 49:18) Lift up thine eyes round about, and behold: all these gather themselves together, and come to thee. As I live, saith the LORD, thou shalt surely clothe thee with them all, as with an ornament, and bind them on thee, as a bride doeth.

(Isaiah 49:19) For thy waste and thy desolate places, and the land of thy destruction, shall even now be too narrow by reason of the inhabitants, and they that swallowed thee up shall be far away.

(Isaiah 49:20) The children which thou shalt have, after thou hast lost the other, shall say again in thine ears, The place is too strait for me: give place to me that I may dwell.

(Isaiah 49:21) Then shalt thou say in thine heart, Who hath begotten me these, seeing I have lost my children, and am desolate, a captive, and removing to and fro? and who hath brought up these? Behold, I was left alone; these, where had they been?

(Isaiah 49:22) Thus saith the Lord GOD, Behold, I will lift up mine hand to the Gentiles, and set up my standard to the people: and they shall bring thy sons in their arms, and thy daughters shall be carried upon their shoulders.

(Isaiah 49:23) And kings shall be thy nursing fathers, and their queens thy nursing mothers: they shall bow down to thee with their face toward the earth, and lick up the dust of thy feet; and thou shalt know that I am the LORD: for they shall not be ashamed that wait for me.

(Isaiah 49:24) Shall the prey be taken from the mighty, or the lawful captive delivered?

(Isaiah 49:25) But thus saith the LORD, Even the captives of the mighty shall be taken away, and the prey of the terrible shall be delivered: for I will contend with him that contendeth with thee, and I will save thy children.

(Isaiah 49:26) And I will feed them that oppress thee with their own flesh; and they shall be drunken with their own blood, as with sweet wine: and all flesh shall know that I the LORD am thy Saviour and thy Redeemer, the mighty One of Jacob.

(Isaiah 50:1) Thus saith the LORD, Where is the bill of your mother's divorcement, whom I have put away? or which of my creditors is it to whom I have sold you? Behold, for your iniquities have ye sold yourselves, and for your transgressions is your mother put away.

(Isaiah 50:2) Wherefore, when I came, was there no man? when I called, was there none to answer? Is my hand shortened at all, that it cannot redeem? or have I no power to deliver? behold, at my rebuke I dry up the sea, I make the rivers a wilderness: their fish stinketh, because there is no water, and dieth for thirst.

(Isaiah 50:3) I clothe the heavens with blackness, and I make sackcloth their covering.

(Isaiah 50:4) The Lord GOD hath given me the tongue of the learned, that I should know how to speak a word in season to him that is weary: he wakeneth morning by morning, he wakeneth mine ear to hear as the learned.

(Isaiah 50:5) The Lord GOD hath opened mine ear, and I was not rebellious, neither turned away back.

(Isaiah 50:6) I gave my back to the smiters, and my cheeks to them that plucked off the hair: I hid not my face from shame and spitting.

(Isaiah 50:7) For the Lord GOD will help me; therefore shall I not be confounded: therefore have I set my face like a flint, and I know that I shall not be ashamed.

(Isaiah 50:8) He is near that justifieth me; who will contend with me? let us stand together: who is mine adversary? let him come near to me.

(Isaiah 50:9) Behold, the Lord GOD will help me; who is he that shall condemn me? lo, they all shall wax old as a garment; the moth shall eat them up.

(Isaiah 50:10) Who is among you that feareth the LORD, that obeyeth the voice of his servant, that walketh in darkness, and hath no light? let him trust in the name of the LORD, and stay upon his God.

(Isaiah 50:11) Behold, all ye that kindle a fire, that compass yourselves about with sparks: walk in the light of your fire, and in the sparks that ye have kindled. This shall ye have of mine hand; ye shall lie down in sorrow.

(Isaiah 51:1) Hearken to me, ye that follow after righteousness, ye that seek the LORD: look unto the rock whence ye are hewn, and to the hole of the pit whence ye are digged.

(Isaiah 51:2) Look unto Abraham your father, and unto Sarah that bare you: for I called him alone, and blessed him, and increased him.

(Isaiah 51:3) For the LORD shall comfort Zion: he will comfort all her waste places; and he will make her wilderness like Eden, and her desert like the garden of the LORD; joy and gladness shall be found therein, thanksgiving, and the voice of melody.

(Isaiah 51:4) Hearken unto me, my people; and give ear unto me, O my nation: for a law shall proceed from me, and I will make my judgment to rest for a light of the people.

(Isaiah 51:5) My righteousness is near; my salvation is gone forth, and mine arms shall judge the people; the isles shall wait upon me, and on mine arm shall they trust.

(Isaiah 51:6) Lift up your eyes to the heavens, and look upon the earth beneath: for the heavens shall vanish away like smoke, and the earth shall wax old like a garment, and they that dwell therein shall die in like manner: but my salvation shall be for ever, and my righteousness shall not be abolished.

(Isaiah 51:7) Hearken unto me, ye that know righteousness, the people in whose heart is my law; fear ye not the reproach of men, neither be ye afraid of their revilings.

(Isaiah 51:8) For the moth shall eat them up like a garment, and the worm shall eat them like wool: but my righteousness shall be for ever, and my salvation from generation to generation.

(Isaiah 51:9) Awake, awake, put on strength, O arm of the LORD; awake, as in the ancient days, in the generations of old. Art thou not it that hath cut Rahab, and wounded the dragon?

(Isaiah 51:10) Art thou not it which hath dried the sea, the waters of the great deep; that hath made the depths of the sea a way for the ransomed to pass over?

(Isaiah 51:11) Therefore the redeemed of the LORD shall return, and come with singing unto Zion; and everlasting joy shall be upon their head: they shall obtain gladness and joy; and sorrow and mourning shall flee away.

(Isaiah 51:12) I, even I, am he that comforteth you: who art thou, that thou shouldest be afraid of a man that shall die, and of the son of man which shall be made as grass;

(Isaiah 51:13) And forgettest the LORD thy maker, that hath stretched forth the heavens, and laid the foundations of the earth; and hast feared continually every day because of the fury of the oppressor, as if he were ready to destroy? and where is the fury of the oppressor?

(Isaiah 51:14) The captive exile hasteneth that he may be loosed, and that he should not die in the pit, nor that his bread should fail.

(Isaiah 51:15) But I am the LORD thy God, that divided the sea, whose waves roared: The LORD of hosts is his name.

(Isaiah 51:16) And I have put my words in thy mouth, and I have covered thee in the shadow of mine hand, that I may plant the heavens, and lay the foundations of the earth, and say unto Zion, Thou art my people.

(Isaiah 51:17) Awake, awake, stand up, O Jerusalem, which hast drunk at the hand of the LORD the cup of his fury; thou hast drunken the dregs of the cup of trembling, and wrung them out.

(Isaiah 51:18) There is none to guide her among all the sons whom she hath brought forth; neither is there any that taketh her by the hand of all the sons that she hath brought up.

(Isaiah 51:19) These two things are come unto thee; who shall be sorry for thee? desolation, and destruction, and the famine, and the sword: by whom shall I comfort thee?

(Isaiah 51:20) Thy sons have fainted, they lie at the head of all the streets, as a wild bull in a net: they are full of the fury of the LORD, the rebuke of thy God.

(Isaiah 51:21) Therefore hear now this, thou afflicted, and drunken, but not with wine:

(Isaiah 51:22) Thus saith thy Lord the LORD, and thy God that pleadeth the cause of his people, Behold, I have taken out of thine hand the cup of trembling, even the dregs of the cup of my fury; thou shalt no more drink it again:

(Isaiah 51:23) But I will put it into the hand of them that afflict thee; which have said to thy soul, Bow down, that we may go over: and thou hast laid thy body as the ground, and as the street, to them that went over.

(Isaiah 52:1) Awake, awake; put on thy strength, O Zion; put on thy beautiful garments, O Jerusalem, the holy city: for henceforth there shall no more come into thee the uncircumcised and the unclean.

(Isaiah 52:2) Shake thyself from the dust; arise, and sit down, O Jerusalem: loose thyself from the bands of thy neck, O captive daughter of Zion.

(Isaiah 52:3) For thus saith the LORD, Ye have sold yourselves for nought; and ye shall be redeemed without money.

(Isaiah 52:4) For thus saith the Lord GOD, My people went down aforetime into Egypt to sojourn there; and the Assyrian oppressed them without cause.

(Isaiah 52:5) Now therefore, what have I here, saith the LORD, that my people is taken away for nought? they that rule over them make them to howl, saith the LORD; and my name continually every day is blasphemed.

(Isaiah 52:6) Therefore my people shall know my name: therefore they shall know in that day that I am he that doth speak: behold, it is I.

(Isaiah 52:7) How beautiful upon the mountains are the feet of him that bringeth good tidings, that publisheth peace; that bringeth good tidings of good, that publisheth salvation; that saith unto Zion, Thy God reigneth!

(Isaiah 52:8) Thy watchmen shall lift up the voice; with the voice together shall they sing: for they shall see eye to eye, when the LORD shall bring again Zion.

(Isaiah 52:9) Break forth into joy, sing together, ye waste places of Jerusalem: for the LORD hath comforted his people, he hath redeemed Jerusalem.

(Isaiah 52:10) The LORD hath made bare his holy arm in the eyes of all the nations; and all the ends of the earth shall see the salvation of our God.

(Isaiah 52:11) Depart ye, depart ye, go ye out from thence, touch no unclean thing; go ye out of the midst of her; be ye clean, that bear the vessels of the LORD.

(Isaiah 52:12) For ye shall not go out with haste, nor go by flight: for the LORD will go before you; and the God of Israel will be your rereward.

(Isaiah 52:13) Behold, my servant shall deal prudently, he shall be exalted and extolled, and be very high.

(Isaiah 52:14) As many were astonied at thee; his visage was so marred more than any man, and his form more than the sons of men:

(Isaiah 52:15) So shall he sprinkle many nations; the kings shall shut their mouths at him: for that which had not been told them shall they see; and that which they had not heard shall they consider.

(Isaiah 53:1) Who hath believed our report? and to whom is the arm of the LORD revealed?

(Isaiah 53:2) For he shall grow up before him as a tender plant, and as a root out of a dry ground: he hath no form nor comeliness; and when we shall see him, there is no beauty that we should desire him.

(Isaiah 53:3) He is despised and rejected of men; a man of sorrows, and acquainted with grief: and we hid as it were our faces from him; he was despised, and we esteemed him not.

(Isaiah 53:4) Surely he hath borne our griefs, and carried our sorrows: yet we did esteem him stricken, smitten of God, and afflicted.

(Isaiah 53:5) But he was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities: the chastisement of our peace was upon him; and with his stripes we are healed.

(Isaiah 53:6) All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned every one to his own way; and the LORD hath laid on him the iniquity of us all.

(Isaiah 53:7) He was oppressed, and he was afflicted, yet he opened not his mouth: he is brought as a lamb to the slaughter, and as a sheep before her shearers is dumb, so he openeth not his mouth.

(Isaiah 53:8) He was taken from prison and from judgment: and who shall declare his generation? for he was cut off out of the land of the living: for the transgression of my people was he stricken.

(Isaiah 53:9) And he made his grave with the wicked, and with the rich in his death; because he had done no violence, neither was any deceit in his mouth.

(Isaiah 53:10) Yet it pleased the LORD to bruise him; he hath put him to grief: when thou shalt make his soul an offering for sin, he shall see his seed, he shall prolong his days, and the pleasure of the LORD shall prosper in his hand.

(Isaiah 53:11) He shall see of the travail of his soul, and shall be satisfied: by his knowledge shall my righteous servant justify many; for he shall bear their iniquities.

(Isaiah 53:12) Therefore will I divide him a portion with the great, and he shall divide the spoil with the strong; because he hath poured out his soul unto death: and he was numbered with the transgressors; and he bare the sin of many, and made intercession for the transgressors.

(Isaiah 54:1) Sing, O barren, thou that didst not bear; break forth into singing, and cry aloud, thou that didst not travail with child: for more are the children of the desolate than the children of the married wife, saith the LORD.

(Isaiah 54:2) Enlarge the place of thy tent, and let them stretch forth the curtains of thine habitations: spare not, lengthen thy cords, and strengthen thy stakes;

(Isaiah 54:3) For thou shalt break forth on the right hand and on the left; and thy seed shall inherit the Gentiles, and make the desolate cities to be inhabited.

(Isaiah 54:4) Fear not; for thou shalt not be ashamed: neither be thou confounded; for thou shalt not be put to shame: for thou shalt forget the shame of thy youth, and shalt not remember the reproach of thy widowhood any more.

(Isaiah 54:5) For thy Maker is thine husband; the LORD of hosts is his name; and thy Redeemer the Holy One of Israel; The God of the whole earth shall he be called.

(Isaiah 54:6) For the LORD hath called thee as a woman forsaken and grieved in spirit, and a wife of youth, when thou wast refused, saith thy God.

(Isaiah 54:7) For a small moment have I forsaken thee; but with great mercies will I gather thee.

(Isaiah 54:8) In a little wrath I hid my face from thee for a moment; but with everlasting kindness will I have mercy on thee, saith the LORD thy Redeemer.

(Isaiah 54:9) For this is as the waters of Noah unto me: for as I have sworn that the waters of Noah should no more go over the earth; so have I sworn that I would not be wroth with thee, nor rebuke thee.

(Isaiah 54:10) For the mountains shall depart, and the hills be removed; but my kindness shall not depart from thee, neither shall the covenant of my peace be removed, saith the LORD that hath mercy on thee.

(Isaiah 54:11) O thou afflicted, tossed with tempest, and not comforted, behold, I will lay thy stones with fair colours, and lay thy foundations with sapphires.

(Isaiah 54:12) And I will make thy windows of agates, and thy gates of carbuncles, and all thy borders of pleasant stones.

(Isaiah 54:13) And all thy children shall be taught of the LORD; and great shall be the peace of thy children.

(Isaiah 54:14) In righteousness shalt thou be established: thou shalt be far from oppression; for thou shalt not fear: and from terror; for it shall not come near thee.

(Isaiah 54:15) Behold, they shall surely gather together, but not by me: whosoever shall gather together against thee shall fall for thy sake.

(Isaiah 54:16) Behold, I have created the smith that bloweth the coals in the fire, and that bringeth forth an instrument for his work; and I have created the waster to destroy.

(Isaiah 54:17) No weapon that is formed against thee shall prosper; and every tongue that shall rise against thee in judgment thou shalt condemn. This is the heritage of the servants of the LORD, and their righteousness is of me, saith the LORD.

(Isaiah 55:1) Ho, every one that thirsteth, come ye to the waters, and he that hath no money; come ye, buy, and eat; yea, come, buy wine and milk without money and without price.

(Isaiah 55:2) Wherefore do ye spend money for that which is not bread? and your labour for that which satisfieth not? hearken diligently unto me, and eat ye that which is good, and let your soul delight itself in fatness.

(Isaiah 55:3) Incline your ear, and come unto me: hear, and your soul shall live; and I will make an everlasting covenant with you, even the sure mercies of David.

(Isaiah 55:4) Behold, I have given him for a witness to the people, a leader and commander to the people.

(Isaiah 55:5) Behold, thou shalt call a nation that thou knowest not, and nations that knew not thee shall run unto thee because of the LORD thy God, and for the Holy One of Israel; for he hath glorified thee.

(Isaiah 55:6) Seek ye the LORD while he may be found, call ye upon him while he is near:

(Isaiah 55:7) Let the wicked forsake his way, and the unrighteous man his thoughts: and let him return unto the LORD, and he will have mercy upon him; and to our God, for he will abundantly pardon.

(Isaiah 55:8) For my thoughts are not your thoughts, neither are your ways my ways, saith the LORD.

(Isaiah 55:9) For as the heavens are higher than the earth, so are my ways higher than your ways, and my thoughts than your thoughts.

(Isaiah 55:10) For as the rain cometh down, and the snow from heaven, and returneth not thither, but watereth the earth, and maketh it bring forth and bud, that it may give seed to the sower, and bread to the eater:

(Isaiah 55:11) So shall my word be that goeth forth out of my mouth: it shall not return unto me void, but it shall accomplish that which I please, and it shall prosper in the thing whereto I sent it.

(Isaiah 55:12) For ye shall go out with joy, and be led forth with peace: the mountains and the hills shall break forth before you into singing, and all the trees of the field shall clap their hands.

(Isaiah 55:13) Instead of the thorn shall come up the fir tree, and instead of the brier shall come up the myrtle tree: and it shall be to the LORD for a name, for an everlasting sign that shall not be cut off.

(Isaiah 56:1) Thus saith the LORD, Keep ye judgment, and do justice: for my salvation is near to come, and my righteousness to be revealed.

(Isaiah 56:2) Blessed is the man that doeth this, and the son of man that layeth hold on it; that keepeth the sabbath from polluting it, and keepeth his hand from doing any evil.

(Isaiah 56:3) Neither let the son of the stranger, that hath joined himself to the LORD, speak, saying, The LORD hath utterly separated me from his people: neither let the eunuch say, Behold, I am a dry tree.

(Isaiah 56:4) For thus saith the LORD unto the eunuchs that keep my sabbaths, and choose the things that please me, and take hold of my covenant;

(Isaiah 56:5) Even unto them will I give in mine house and within my walls a place and a name better than of sons and of daughters: I will give them an everlasting name, that shall not be cut off.

(Isaiah 56:6) Also the sons of the stranger, that join themselves to the LORD, to serve him, and to love the name of the LORD, to be his servants, every one that keepeth the sabbath from polluting it, and taketh hold of my covenant;

(Isaiah 56:7) Even them will I bring to my holy mountain, and make them joyful in my house of prayer: their burnt offerings and their sacrifices shall be accepted upon mine altar; for mine house shall be called an house of prayer for all people.

(Isaiah 56:8) The Lord GOD which gathereth the outcasts of Israel saith, Yet will I gather others to him, beside those that are gathered unto him.

(Isaiah 56:9) All ye beasts of the field, come to devour, yea, all ye beasts in the forest.

(Isaiah 56:10) His watchmen are blind: they are all ignorant, they are all dumb dogs, they cannot bark; sleeping, lying down, loving to slumber.

(Isaiah 56:11) Yea, they are greedy dogs which can never have enough, and they are shepherds that cannot understand: they all look to their own way, every one for his gain, from his quarter.

(Isaiah 56:12) Come ye, say they, I will fetch wine, and we will fill ourselves with strong drink; and to morrow shall be as this day, and much more abundant.

(Isaiah 59:1) Behold, the LORD'S hand is not shortened, that it cannot save; neither his ear heavy, that it cannot hear:

(Isaiah 59:2) But your iniquities have separated between you and your God, and your sins have hid his face from you, that he will not hear.

(Isaiah 59:3) For your hands are defiled with blood, and your fingers with iniquity; your lips have spoken lies, your tongue hath muttered perverseness.

(Isaiah 59:4) None calleth for justice, nor any pleadeth for truth: they trust in vanity, and speak lies; they conceive mischief, and bring forth iniquity.

(Isaiah 59:5) They hatch cockatrice' eggs, and weave the spider's web: he that eateth of their eggs dieth, and that which is crushed breaketh out into a viper.

(Isaiah 59:6) Their webs shall not become garments, neither shall they cover themselves with their works: their works are works of iniquity, and the act of violence is in their hands.

(Isaiah 59:7) Their feet run to evil, and they make haste to shed innocent blood: their thoughts are thoughts of iniquity; wasting and destruction are in their paths.

(Isaiah 59:8) The way of peace they know not; and there is no judgment in their goings: they have made them crooked paths: whosoever goeth therein shall not know peace.

(Isaiah 59:9) Therefore is judgment far from us, neither doth justice overtake us: we wait for light, but behold obscurity; for brightness, but we walk in darkness.

(Isaiah 59:10) We grope for the wall like the blind, and we grope as if we had no eyes: we stumble at noon day as in the night; we are in desolate places as dead men.

(Isaiah 59:11) We roar all like bears, and mourn sore like doves: we look for judgment, but there is none; for salvation, but it is far off from us.

(Isaiah 59:12) For our transgressions are multiplied before thee, and our sins testify against us: for our transgressions are with us; and as for our iniquities, we know them;

(Isaiah 59:13) In transgressing and lying against the LORD, and departing away from our God, speaking oppression and revolt, conceiving and uttering from the heart words of falsehood.

(Isaiah 59:14) And judgment is turned away backward, and justice standeth afar off: for truth is fallen in the street, and equity cannot enter.

(Isaiah 59:15) Yea, truth faileth; and he that departeth from evil maketh himself a prey: and the LORD saw it, and it displeased him that there was no judgment.

(Isaiah 59:16) And he saw that there was no man, and wondered that there was no intercessor: therefore his arm brought salvation unto him; and his righteousness, it sustained him.

(Isaiah 59:17) For he put on righteousness as a breastplate, and an helmet of salvation upon his head; and he put on the garments of vengeance for clothing, and was clad with zeal as a cloak.

(Isaiah 59:18) According to their deeds, accordingly he will repay, fury to his adversaries, recompense to his enemies; to the islands he will repay recompense.

(Isaiah 59:19) So shall they fear the name of the LORD from the west, and his glory from the rising of the sun. When the enemy shall come in like a flood, the Spirit of the LORD shall lift up a standard against him.

(Isaiah 59:20) And the Redeemer shall come to Zion, and unto them that turn from transgression in Jacob, saith the LORD.

(Isaiah 59:21) As for me, this is my covenant with them, saith the LORD; My spirit that is upon thee, and my words which I have put in thy mouth, shall not depart out of thy mouth, nor out of the mouth of thy seed, nor out of the mouth of thy seed's seed, saith the LORD, from henceforth and for ever.

(Isaiah 60:1) Arise, shine; for thy light is come, and the glory of the LORD is risen upon thee.

(Isaiah 60:2) For, behold, the darkness shall cover the earth, and gross darkness the people: but the LORD shall arise upon thee, and his glory shall be seen upon thee.

(Isaiah 60:3) And the Gentiles shall come to thy light, and kings to the brightness of thy rising.

(Isaiah 60:4) Lift up thine eyes round about, and see: all they gather themselves together, they come to thee: thy sons shall come from far, and thy daughters shall be nursed at thy side.

(Isaiah 60:5) Then thou shalt see, and flow together, and thine heart shall fear, and be enlarged; because the abundance of the sea shall be converted unto thee, the forces of the Gentiles shall come unto thee.

(Isaiah 60:6) The multitude of camels shall cover thee, the dromedaries of Midian and Ephah; all they from Sheba shall come: they shall bring gold and incense; and they shall show forth the praises of the LORD.

(Isaiah 60:7) All the flocks of Kedar shall be gathered together unto thee, the rams of Nebaioth shall minister unto thee: they shall come up with acceptance on mine altar, and I will glorify the house of my glory.

(Isaiah 60:8) Who are these that fly as a cloud, and as the doves to their windows?

(Isaiah 60:9) Surely the isles shall wait for me, and the ships of Tarshish first, to bring thy sons from far, their silver and their gold with them, unto the name of the LORD thy God, and to the Holy One of Israel, because he hath glorified thee.

(Isaiah 60:10) And the sons of strangers shall build up thy walls, and their kings shall minister unto thee: for in my wrath I smote thee, but in my favour have I had mercy on thee.

(Isaiah 60:11) Therefore thy gates shall be open continually; they shall not be shut day nor night; that men may bring unto thee the forces of the Gentiles, and that their kings may be brought.

(Isaiah 60:12) For the nation and kingdom that will not serve thee shall perish; yea, those nations shall be utterly wasted.

(Isaiah 60:13) The glory of Lebanon shall come unto thee, the fir tree, the pine tree, and the box together, to beautify the place of my sanctuary; and I will make the place of my feet glorious.

(Isaiah 60:14) The sons also of them that afflicted thee shall come bending unto thee; and all they that despised thee shall bow themselves down at the soles of thy feet; and they shall call thee, The city of the LORD, The Zion of the Holy One of Israel.

(Isaiah 60:15) Whereas thou hast been forsaken and hated, so that no man went through thee, I will make thee an eternal excellency, a joy of many generations.

(Isaiah 60:16) Thou shalt also suck the milk of the Gentiles, and shalt suck the breast of kings: and thou shalt know that I the LORD am thy Saviour and thy Redeemer, the mighty One of Jacob.

(Isaiah 60:17) For brass I will bring gold, and for iron I will bring silver, and for wood brass, and for stones iron: I will also make thy officers peace, and thine exactors righteousness.

(Isaiah 60:18) Violence shall no more be heard in thy land, wasting nor destruction within thy borders; but thou shalt call thy walls Salvation, and thy gates Praise.

(Isaiah 60:19) The sun shall be no more thy light by day; neither for brightness shall the moon give light unto thee: but the LORD shall be unto thee an everlasting light, and thy God thy glory.

(Isaiah 60:20) Thy sun shall no more go down; neither shall thy moon withdraw itself: for the LORD shall be thine everlasting light, and the days of thy mourning shall be ended.

(Isaiah 60:21) Thy people also shall be all righteous: they shall inherit the land for ever, the branch of my planting, the work of my hands, that I may be glorified.

(Isaiah 60:22) A little one shall become a thousand, and a small one a strong nation: I the LORD will hasten it in his time.

(Isaiah 61:1) The spirit of the Lord GOD is upon me; because the LORD hath anointed me to preach good tidings unto the meek; he hath sent me to bind up the brokenhearted, to proclaim liberty to the captives, and the opening of the prison to them that are bound;

(Isaiah 61:2) To proclaim the acceptable year of the LORD, and the day of vengeance of our God; to comfort all that mourn;

(Isaiah 61:3) To appoint unto them that mourn in Zion, to give unto them beauty for ashes, the oil of joy for mourning, the garment of praise for the spirit of heaviness; that they might be called trees of righteousness, the planting of the LORD, that he might be glorified.

(Isaiah 61:4) And they shall build the old wastes, they shall raise up the former desolations, and they shall repair the waste cities, the desolations of many generations.

(Isaiah 61:5) And strangers shall stand and feed your flocks, and the sons of the alien shall be your plowmen and your vinedressers.

(Isaiah 61:6) But ye shall be named the Priests of the LORD: men shall call you the Ministers of our God: ye shall eat the riches of the Gentiles, and in their glory shall ye boast yourselves.

(Isaiah 61:7) For your shame ye shall have double; and for confusion they shall rejoice in their portion: therefore in their land they shall possess the double: everlasting joy shall be unto them.

(Isaiah 61:8) For I the LORD love judgment, I hate robbery for burnt offering; and I will direct their work in truth, and I will make an everlasting covenant with them.

(Isaiah 61:9) And their seed shall be known among the Gentiles, and their offspring among the people: all that see them shall acknowledge them, that they are the seed which the LORD hath blessed.

(Isaiah 61:10) I will greatly rejoice in the LORD, my soul shall be joyful in my God; for he hath clothed me with the garments of salvation, he hath covered me with the robe of righteousness, as a bridegroom decketh himself with ornaments, and as a bride adorneth herself with her jewels.

(Isaiah 61:11) For as the earth bringeth forth her bud, and as the garden causeth the things that are sown in it to spring forth; so the Lord GOD will cause righteousness and praise to spring forth before all the nations.

(Isaiah 62:1) For Zion's sake will I not hold my peace, and for Jerusalem's sake I will not rest, until the righteousness thereof go forth as brightness, and the salvation thereof as a lamp that burneth.

(Isaiah 62:2) And the Gentiles shall see thy righteousness, and all kings thy glory: and thou shalt be called by a new name, which the mouth of the LORD shall name.

(Isaiah 62:3) Thou shalt also be a crown of glory in the hand of the LORD, and a royal diadem in the hand of thy God.

(Isaiah 62:4) Thou shalt no more be termed Forsaken; neither shall thy land any more be termed Desolate: but thou shalt be called Hephzibah, and thy land Beulah: for the LORD delighteth in thee, and thy land shall be married.

(Isaiah 62:5) For as a young man marrieth a virgin, so shall thy sons marry thee: and as the bridegroom rejoiceth over the bride, so shall thy God rejoice over thee.

(Isaiah 62:6) I have set watchmen upon thy walls, O Jerusalem, which shall never hold their peace day nor night: ye that make mention of the LORD, keep not silence.

(Isaiah 62:7) And give him no rest, till he establish, and till he make Jerusalem a praise in the earth.

(Isaiah 62:8) The LORD hath sworn by his right hand, and by the arm of his strength, Surely I will no more give thy corn to be meat for thine enemies; and the sons of the stranger shall not drink thy wine, for the which thou hast laboured:

(Isaiah 62:9) But they that have gathered it shall eat it and praise the LORD; and they that have brought it together shall drink it in the courts of my holiness.

(Isaiah 62:10) Go through, go through the gates; prepare ye the way of the people; cast up, cast up the highway; gather out the stones; lift up a standard for the people.

(Isaiah 62:11) Behold, the LORD hath proclaimed unto the end of the world, Say ye to the daughter of Zion, Behold, thy salvation cometh; behold, his reward is with him, and his work before him.

(Isaiah 62:12) And they shall call them, The holy people, The redeemed of the LORD: and thou shalt be called, Sought out, A city not forsaken.

(Isaiah 64:1) Oh that thou wouldest rend the heavens, that thou wouldest come down, that the mountains might flow down at thy presence.

(Isaiah 64:2) As when the melting fire burneth, the fire causeth the waters to boil, to make thy name known to thine adversaries, that the nations may tremble at thy presence!

(Isaiah 64:3) When thou didst terrible things which we looked not for, thou camest down, the mountains flowed down at thy presence.

(Isaiah 64:4) For since the beginning of the world men have not heard, nor perceived by the ear, neither hath the eye seen, O God, beside thee, what he hath prepared for him that waiteth for him.

(Isaiah 64:5) Thou meetest him that rejoiceth and worketh righteousness, those that remember thee in thy ways: behold, thou art wroth; for we have sinned: in those is continuance, and we shall be saved.

(Isaiah 64:6) But we are all as an unclean thing, and all our righteousnesses are as filthy rags; and we all do fade as a leaf; and our iniquities, like the wind, have taken us away.

(Isaiah 64:7) And there is none that calleth upon thy name, that stirreth up himself to take hold of thee: for thou hast hid thy face from us, and hast consumed us, because of our iniquities.

(Isaiah 64:8) But now, O LORD, thou art our father; we are the clay, and thou our potter; and we all are the work of thy hand.

(Isaiah 64:9) Be not wroth very sore, O LORD, neither remember iniquity for ever: behold, see, we beseech thee, we are all thy people.

(Isaiah 64:10) Thy holy cities are a wilderness, Zion is a wilderness, Jerusalem a desolation.

(Isaiah 64:11) Our holy and our beautiful house, where our fathers praised thee, is burned up with fire: and all our pleasant things are laid waste.

(Isaiah 64:12) Wilt thou refrain thyself for these things, O LORD? wilt thou hold thy peace, and afflict us very sore?

(Isaiah 65:1) I am sought of them that asked not for me; I am found of them that sought me not: I said, Behold me, behold me, unto a nation that was not called by my name.

(Isaiah 65:2) I have spread out my hands all the day unto a rebellious people, which walketh in a way that was not good, after their own thoughts;

(Isaiah 65:3) A people that provoketh me to anger continually to my face; that sacrificeth in gardens, and burneth incense upon altars of brick;

(Isaiah 65:4) Which remain among the graves, and lodge in the monuments, which eat swine's flesh, and broth of abominable things is in their vessels;

(Isaiah 65:5) Which say, Stand by thyself, come not near to me; for I am holier than thou. These are a smoke in my nose, a fire that burneth all the day.

(Isaiah 65:6) Behold, it is written before me: I will not keep silence, but will recompense, even recompense into their bosom,

God will judge the wicked. Notice that they are judged for their works, not for their beliefs. We are all judged for our works. Faith leads to works pleasing to God; if we don't have good works we don't have faith. We are not saved by faith only.

(James 2:14) What doth it profit, my brethren, though a man say he hath faith, and have not works? can faith save him?

(James 2:17) Even so faith, if it hath not works, is dead, being alone.

(James 2:18) Yea, a man may say, Thou hast faith, and I have works: show me thy faith without thy works, and I will show thee my faith by my works.

(James 2:20) But wilt thou know, O vain man, that faith without works is dead?

(James 2:22) Seest thou how faith wrought with his works, and by works was faith made perfect?

(James 2:24) Ye see then how that by works a man is justified, and not by faith only.

(Isaiah 65:7) Your iniquities, and the iniquities of your fathers together, saith the LORD, which have burned incense upon the mountains, and blasphemed me upon the hills: therefore will I measure their former work into their bosom.

Not only was the current generation of people wicked, those of previous generations were also wicked. This wickedness was long-running and generational.

These wicked people actively practiced worship of false gods; of idols. In their religious ceremonies the blasphemed the true God. I don't think the offering of a pinch of incense as demanded by the Romans is in the same category as this at all.

(Isaiah 65:8) Thus saith the LORD, As the new wine is found in the cluster, and one saith, Destroy it not; for a blessing is in it: so will I do for my servants' sakes, that I may not destroy them all.

God will not destroy everyone. He will redeemed the remnant who remain faithful to him in a corrupt and wicked society. I think we can apply this to our current world which has become a place of low morals and contempt for God and for those who worship and serve him. We are to remain aloof from this and we are to practice virtue and refrain from vice.

(Isaiah 65:9) And I will bring forth a seed out of Jacob, and out of Judah an inheritor of my mountains: and mine elect shall inherit it, and my servants shall dwell there.

God will never forsake his chosen people, his chosen nation, Israel. In the final glorious new heavens and new earth there will be a nation of Israel with a descendant of David ruling over them. There will be a literal land in the same location as the Israel of the time of Isaiah. Thus, the new heavens and new earth will have much in common with this current world. There will be nations with rulers. The geography of the earth will be similar to that of today. (This implies that the earth will not change much; that it will not undergo hundreds of millions of years of natural change — this would alter the geography too much making the land of Israel unrecognizable.)

(Isaiah 65:10) And Sharon shall be a fold of flocks, and the valley of Achor a place for the herds to lie down in, for my people that have sought me.

There will be shepherds in the new heavens and new earth. Thus, people will work for a living. Presumably, the sheep will be sheared for wool and people will use the wool to make clothing. In the eternal state we will not be passive spirits who merely worship God in some sort of eternal trance-like existence. Rather, we will have activities and projects that we do for enjoyment. Our worship of God will include living our lives are we were created to do; with our bodies performing activities which honor God.

(Isaiah 65:11) But ye are they that forsake the LORD, that forget my holy mountain, that prepare a table for that troop, and that furnish the drink offering unto that number.

The spiritual leaders of Israel in Isaiah's day had involved themselves with secular pursuits; with alliances and treaties with the nations around them. They offered sacrifices on behalf of their relationships with these nations.

I think the Catholic Church (both eastern and western) and Christendom were guilty of this also. Christianity was never intended to become a secular power in the world. Just as the Israelites were to focus their worship of God on their God who resided in the temple on the holy mountain; just so Christian leaders (elders, bishops) were to focus on their worship of God in their religious ceremonies and the Eucharist. Instead, they entered into politics and the church became a political entity.

(Isaiah 65:12) Therefore will I number you to the sword, and ye shall all bow down to the slaughter: because when I called, ye did not answer; when I spake, ye did not hear; but did evil before mine eyes, and did choose that wherein I delighted not.

God judged them because they reject his call to virtue. At the time of Isaiah, the material aspect of this judgment would come in the form of being killed and slaughtered in battle. The wicked nation of Israel as a whole was destroyed as well as the individuals (including those who were righteous) in the nation. Thus, the innocent are destroyed along with the wicked when society as a whole is judged by God for its wickedness. Sin hurts more than those who sin; it spreads through all of society.

(Isaiah 65:13) Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD, Behold, my servants shall eat, but ye shall be hungry: behold, my servants shall drink, but ye shall be thirsty: behold, my servants shall rejoice, but ye shall be ashamed:

(Isaiah 65:14) Behold, my servants shall sing for joy of heart, but ye shall cry for sorrow of heart, and shall howl for vexation of spirit.

This verse talks about the eternal fate of the wicked and the righteous. Both groups were killed in battle. But the righteous will enjoy good things in the new heavens and new earth, however, the wicked will not enjoy the blessing of an eternal utopia. Notice that people will eat and drink in the new heavens and new earth. They will also rejoice and be happy, and will sing.

Those wicked who spend eternity in the lake of fire will suffer and will express their suffering by howling. They will eternally feel shame and sorrow, and they will have the conscious experience of being vexed. Theirs will not be a life of peace.

(Isaiah 65:15) And ye shall leave your name for a curse unto my chosen: for the Lord GOD shall slay thee, and call his servants by another name:

Both the wicked and the righteous will have new names. The name of the wicked will be a name of cursing; the name of the righteous will be given by God.

(Revelation 3:12) Him that overcometh will I make a pillar in the temple of my God, and he shall go no more out: and I will write upon him the name of my God, and the name of the city of my God, which is new Jerusalem, which cometh down out of heaven from my God: and I will write upon him my new name.

(Isaiah 65:16) That he who blesseth himself in the earth shall bless himself in the God of truth; and he that sweareth in the earth shall swear by the God of truth; because the former troubles are forgotten, and because they are hid from mine eyes.

(Isaiah 65:17) For, behold, I create new heavens and a new earth: and the former shall not be remembered, nor come into mind.

The eternal utopia for the redeemed is the new heavens and new earth, not heaven. The standard evangelical question, "If you died today would you go to heaven?" is wrong.

In this eternal utopia we will not remember this current world. I don't think this means that are memories are wiped away; rather, I think it means that we will be so happy and fulfilled that we won't wish we were back in this world.

(Isaiah 65:18) But be ye glad and rejoice for ever in that which I create: for, behold, I create Jerusalem a rejoicing, and her people a joy.

(Isaiah 65:19) And I will rejoice in Jerusalem, and joy in my people: and the voice of weeping shall be no more heard in her, nor the voice of crying.

(Isaiah 65:20) There shall be no more thence an infant of days, nor an old man that hath not filled his days: for the child shall die an hundred years old; but the sinner being an hundred years old shall be accursed.

(Isaiah 65:21) And they shall build houses, and inhabit them; and they shall plant vineyards, and eat the fruit of them.

(Isaiah 65:22) They shall not build, and another inhabit; they shall not plant, and another eat: for as the days of a tree are the days of my people, and mine elect shall long enjoy the work of their hands.

(Isaiah 65:23) They shall not labour in vain, nor bring forth for trouble; for they are the seed of the blessed of the LORD, and their offspring with them.

(Isaiah 65:24) And it shall come to pass, that before they call, I will answer; and while they are yet speaking, I will hear.

(Isaiah 65:25) The wolf and the lamb shall feed together, and the lion shall eat straw like the bullock: and dust shall be the serpent's meat. They shall not hurt nor destroy in all my holy mountain, saith the LORD.

I interpret this verse literally; there is no compelling reason to interpret it figuratively. Premillennialists typically interpret it literally and assign these conditions to a utopian 1,000 yearperiod on earth. But I find this hard to accept.

In my view, these conditions will take place in the yet-future new heavens and new earth. This verse has some important descriptions of what life will be like in this eternal utopia:

(Isaiah 66:1) Thus saith the LORD, The heaven is my throne, and the earth is my footstool: where is the house that ye build unto me? and where is the place of my rest?

Where is God's house (palace), his temple, and his throne? The whole universe is his and is for his use. Us humans can't build a home for God that is worthy of him unless he commands us to do so.

(Isaiah 66:2) For all those things hath mine hand made, and all those things have been, saith the LORD: but to this man will I look, even to him that is poor and of a contrite spirit, and trembleth at my word.

Even though God is the creator of everything and of every creature, he loves each of those who have the proper disposition toward him. We are to fear his word, meaning, that we are to recognize that he is the supreme judge of all. We are to be humble and recognize that everything we have comes from God.

(Isaiah 66:3) He that killeth an ox is as if he slew a man; he that sacrificeth a lamb, as if he cut off a dog's neck; he that offereth an oblation, as if he offered swine's blood; he that burneth incense, as if he blessed an idol. Yea, they have chosen their own ways, and their soul delighteth in their abominations.

Merely performing the sacrifices as commanded by God in the Old Testament has no value unless we have the proper attitude. It is hard to imagine why the people of God's chosen nation would become so wicked and depraved but they did.

(Isaiah 66:4) I also will choose their delusions, and will bring their fears upon them; because when I called, none did answer; when I spake, they did not hear: but they did evil before mine eyes, and chose that in which I delighted not.

We are to hear God's call and to know of God's holy commands. He wishes us to live holy lives.

(Isaiah 66:5) Hear the word of the LORD, ye that tremble at his word; Your brethren that hated you, that cast you out for my name's sake, said, Let the LORD be glorified: but he shall appear to your joy, and they shall be ashamed.

(Isaiah 66:6) A voice of noise from the city, a voice from the temple, a voice of the LORD that rendereth recompense to his enemies.

God will judge wickedness, sin, and evil

(Isaiah 66:7) Before she travailed, she brought forth; before her pain came, she was delivered of a man child.

(Isaiah 66:8) Who hath heard such a thing? who hath seen such things? Shall the earth be made to bring forth in one day? or shall a nation be born at once? for as soon as Zion travailed, she brought forth her children.

(Isaiah 66:9) Shall I bring to the birth, and not cause to bring forth? saith the LORD: shall I cause to bring forth, and shut the womb? saith thy God.

(Isaiah 66:10) Rejoice ye with Jerusalem, and be glad with her, all ye that love her: rejoice for joy with her, all ye that mourn for her:

(Isaiah 66:11) That ye may suck, and be satisfied with the breasts of her consolations; that ye may milk out, and be delighted with the abundance of her glory.

(Isaiah 66:12) For thus saith the LORD, Behold, I will extend peace to her like a river, and the glory of the Gentiles like a flowing stream: then shall ye suck, ye shall be borne upon her sides, and be dandled upon her knees.

(Isaiah 66:13) As one whom his mother comforteth, so will I comfort you; and ye shall be comforted in Jerusalem.

(Isaiah 66:14) And when ye see this, your heart shall rejoice, and your bones shall flourish like an herb: and the hand of the LORD shall be known toward his servants, and his indignation toward his enemies.

(Isaiah 66:15) For, behold, the LORD will come with fire, and with his chariots like a whirlwind, to render his anger with fury, and his rebuke with flames of fire.

(Isaiah 66:16) For by fire and by his sword will the LORD plead with all flesh: and the slain of the LORD shall be many.

At the second coming of Christ, Jesus will return with fire and chariots. Presumably, some of the angels are riding in the chariots since he in on a horse.

People are slain at this time. There is an actual battle.

(Revelation 19:11) And I saw heaven opened, and behold a white horse; and he that sat upon him was called Faithful and True, and in righteousness he doth judge and make war.

(Revelation 19:12) His eyes were as a flame of fire, and on his head were many crowns; and he had a name written, that no man knew, but he himself.

(Revelation 19:13) And he was clothed with a vesture dipped in blood: and his name is called The Word of God.

(Revelation 19:14) And the armies which were in heaven followed him upon white horses, clothed in fine linen, white and clean.

(Revelation 19:15) And out of his mouth goeth a sharp sword, that with it he should smite the nations: and he shall rule them with a rod of iron: and he treadeth the winepress of the fierceness and wrath of Almighty God.

(Isaiah 66:17) They that sanctify themselves, and purify themselves in the gardens behind one tree in the midst, eating swine's flesh, and the abomination, and the mouse, shall be consumed together, saith the LORD.

The Jews who practice idolatry and who eat pork, mice, rats, rodents, and other unclean foods are the ones who will be judged. It's very odd that these would be singled out. Because of verses like this people have come up with the following views:

It seems odd that the Jewish dietary laws would still be in effect at the second coming of Christ since they were revoked by Christ's new covenant. Perhaps these verses refer to a yet-future sect of Jews who practice secret ceremonies and practice idolatry.

(Isaiah 66:18) For I know their works and their thoughts: it shall come, that I will gather all nations and tongues; and they shall come, and see my glory.

Final eternal redemption is not limited to Jews only but will include everyone.

(Isaiah 66:19) And I will set a sign among them, and I will send those that escape [survivors] of them unto the nations, to Tarshish, Pul, and Lud, that draw the bow, to Tubal, and Javan, to the isles afar off, that have not heard my fame, neither have seen my glory; and they shall declare my glory among the Gentiles.

Christ and the gospel was a sign to the people of God's redemption. The Christian evangelists brought the message to the whole world. They are "survivors" because they have survived God's eternal punishment on the wicked. They survived by accepting the gospel just as those in Isaiah's day survived by remaining righteous; even though they were killed or captured by the Babylonians their soul survived the judgment on the wickedness of Israel as a nation and a people. The entire nation was judged; faith-filled, righteous individuals survived this judgment.

(Isaiah 66:20) And they shall bring all your brethren for an offering unto the LORD out of all nations upon horses, and in chariots, and in litters [carried in a chair], and upon mules, and upon swift beasts [camels], to my holy mountain Jerusalem, saith the LORD, as the children of Israel bring an offering in a clean vessel into the house of the LORD.

There is no time in history in which the Jewish redeemed in the world were brought to Jerusalem by those who delivered the message. This event will occur in the new heavens and new earth. At that time there will be horses, mules, camels, chariots, and litters. People will flock to the holy mountain in Jerusalem where God will again take up residence. This pilgrimage to Jerusalem will be a form of worship similar to the offerings performed by the Levites.

(Isaiah 66:21) And I will also take of them for priests and for Levites, saith the LORD.

The people referred to in this verse and the previous (verse 20) are Jews who are redeemed. These Jews have migrated to other countries outside of Israel and are redeemed by hearing the gospel from the Christians. In the new heavens and new earth some of these converted Jews who were Levites will again become priests. Thus we see that God's chosen nation of Israel retains its distinct identity for all of eternity.

At that time there will be priests in Israel and sacrificial offering to God.

(Isaiah 66:22) For as the new heavens and the new earth, which I will make, shall remain before me, saith the LORD, so shall your seed and your name remain.

This vision of a new heavens and new earth is a vision of a yet-future utopia which will last forever. Notice that the final end of the redeemed is not to spend eternity in heaven but, rather, to spend eternity in the new heavens and new earth.

Just as the new heavens and new earth will last forever, so will the Levites.

(Isaiah 66:23) And it shall come to pass, that from one new moon to another, and from one sabbath to another, shall all flesh come to worship before me, saith the LORD.

In the new heavens and new earth people will worship God together in congregational worship services. There will be feast days and holy days and sabbaths. Presumably we will travel to special locations for these worship events.

(Isaiah 66:24) And they shall go forth, and look upon the carcases of the men that have transgressed against me: for their worm shall not die, neither shall their fire be quenched; and they shall be an abhorring unto all flesh.

The unredeemed will live forever in a state of permanent annihilation; they are not destroyed but they are forever being destroyed.

The redeemed will look upon the dead bodies of the unredeemed. Perhaps us redeemed will pray for moments of comfort for those who are experiencing the eternal rejection by God, much as we can pray for those in purgatory to assist in their purification.